“Farmers as Entrepreneurs: The Case of Farm-Based Tourism

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 06/2008; 6(3). DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2008.019130


Recent trends indicate that more farmers will diversify their activities, leading to 'pluriactivity'. Farmers that develop their farming enterprise by building tourism businesses based upon the resources of the farm can be seen as farm entrepreneurs who are entering the service sector. Based on a representative statistical data set from a survey conducted in 2006, where 1677 farmers responded to a broad set of questions, this paper identifies the characteristics of farm-based tourism and farmers as tourism entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this paper explores the impact of the additional activities associated with farm-based tourism for both the farm economy and the work situation for the farm household. The data set presents a unique opportunity to combine sociocultural data with data on alternative farm economic activities in the form of tourism. Trondheim. Her research themes focus on work, life quality, images of the rural life and rural tourism. She has published in international journals and books in the area of gender issues in agriculture and rural communities.

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Available from: Marit S. Haugen,
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    • "The research project, which the article is part of, has been placed at the Nordic research institute Nordregio. farming, including tourism and hospitality, and local food production (Dessein and Neven, 2007), or combining farming with pluriactivity (Haugen and Vik, 2008)[1]. Björkhaug and Blekesaune (2008), however, underline that pluriactivity has more or less always been part of farming, through hunting, forestry and fishing. "
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    ABSTRACT: urpose – This paper aims to explore how gender is “done” on farms in Sweden in the context of increased tourism and hospitality activities. The authors seek to investigate how gender is done vis-à-vis women’s farm tourism entrepreneurship. They seek to answer the questions: What has motivated the farm women to become tourism entrepreneurs? How are the gendered divisions of labor changed through women starting businesses? How does the gendered associated symbolism, as well as the identities, change? Design/methodology/approach – Research has indicated that introducing tourism entrepreneurship at farms may challenge established gender relations, as many of these entrepreneurs are women. The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with 15 women farm tourism entrepreneurs in central Sweden. Findings – The analysis suggests that the gendered divisions of labor are not changed through the interviewed women starting tourism businesses. The authors conclude that the women build their entrepreneurship and develop some of their products on an image of rural domesticity, including a representation of themselves as traditional farm women. At the same time they are changing how gender is done through identifying as entrepreneurs and changing the use of the farms. Originality/value – The authors seek to fill the research gap concerning women’s farm tourism entrepreneurship and the potential associated gendered changes. Their theoretical contribution is applying the perspective of “doing gender” and entrepreneurship, for delineating potential changes in gendered relations.
    Gender in Management 10/2014; 29(8):487 - 504. DOI:10.1108/GM-02-2014-0016
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    • "Selon Dufour et Lanciano (2012), ces nouvelles formes d'échange modifient en profondeur les pratiques agricoles des exploitants. En particulier, alors que les hommes considèrent l'artisanat alimentaire et la vente directe comme étrangers à leur profession (Macken-Walsh, 2011), les femmes sont en moyenne plus motivées par ces pratiques (Haugen and Vik, 2008). En outre, Camou et Quelin (2010) constatent que les projets portés dans des installations hors cadre familial, souvent par des néoagriculteurs , sont plus fréquemment atypiques. "
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    ABSTRACT: Le présent travail analyse les circuits courts agroalimentaires à travers le cadre de l’économie de la proximité. Il s’appuie sur les données 2010 du Recensement Agricole ainsi que sur une enquête quantitative inédite en France menée en Limousin auprès de 500 producteurs pratiquant les circuits courts (700 variables), accompagnée de 40 entretiens libres auprès de producteurs, consommateurs, commerçants et acteurs institutionnels. Malgré une activité institutionnelle apparemment importante et fortement médiatisée, les circuits courts semblent se caractériser par le faible rôle des proximités institutionnelles. Les proximités spatiales et plus encore relationnelles jouent en revanche un rôle déterminant. En particulier, la proximité relationnelle qui caractérise les circuits courts en Limousin n’est pas un phénomène passager lié à une dynamique d’émergence mais une propriété durable qui induit un mode d’accompagnement particulier.
    Géographie Économie Société 10/2014; 16(3):339-362. DOI:10.3166/ges.16.339-362
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    • "A few studies of innovation in the area have pointed to the importance of the family and local networks in this reorientation (Brandth et al. 2010; Schmitt 2010). Moreover, research has studied motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship (Nickerson et al. 2001; McGehee and Kim 2004; McGehee et al. 2005, 2007; Haugen and Vik 2008). One finding is that farm women have a higher, but not very different motivation than men (McGehee et al. 2007), and that they consider hosting to provide positive work satisfaction and economic independence (Sharpley and Vass 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to analyse the overlap between work and home in farm tourism.When farmers diversify their production into tourism using their homes as a commercial arena for hosting visitors, new challenges regarding boundaries between private and public, home and work arise. The article shows how central aspects of hosting involve inherent dilemmas between the farm as a home and as a site of commercial activities. Moreover, it shows how the boundaries between work and home are managed in order to balance business and a sense of home. Such boundary work consists of attempts at adjusting the product, marking rules and creating separate spaces for home and work, something that produces a more conditional hospitality. The analysis is based on studies of twenty family farms from various districts in Norway. Some of the farms combine tourism and farming while others have altered their production to tourism only. The material includes formal interviews with sixteen women and nineteen men operating the businesses.
    11/2012; 2(2):179-196. DOI:10.1386/hosp.2.2.179_1
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