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riesgo de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en pacientes con enfermedad aguda internados en urgencias

ABSTRACT reSUMen antecedentes: la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un problema de salud pública grave en todo el mundo y una de las principales causas de muerte potencialmente prevenible en hospitales. Es necesario conocer los factores de riesgo para enfermedad tromboembólica venosa desde los servicios de urgencias. objetivo: conocer los factores de riesgo para enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en pacientes con enfermedad aguda internados en urgencias. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo efectuado en pacientes ingresados en urgencias adultos durante los meses de enero y febrero del 2009 evaluados según el número y características de factores de riesgo para enfermedad tromboembólica venosa definidos por las guías del ACCP. Con base en la cantidad de factores de riesgo se determinó la posibilidad de llegar a padecer enfermedad tromboem-bólica venosa. resultados: durante el periodo de estudio ingresaron a la sala de observación de urgencias adultos 2,050 pacientes, de los que se consideraron 1,980 susceptibles de estudio. El promedio de edad fue de 58.5 años. 920 hombres y 1,060 mujeres. 970 pacientes tenían más de 60 años de edad. Obesidad e insuficiencia venosa periférica se reportaron en 26% de los casos, insuficiencia renal crónica se encontró en 376 pacientes. 257 tenían inmovilización prolongada y en 158 se estableció diagnóstico de algún tipo de neoplasia. Más de 80% de los pacientes tienen por lo menos dos factores de riesgo para enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y más de 70% tienen riesgo alto de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (más de tres factores de riesgo). Conclusión: la mayoría de los pacientes ingresados a urgencias tienen riesgo alto o muy alto de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa. Se debe realizar un análisis del número de factores de riesgo y establecer medidas profilácticas efectivas que permitan reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad de esta enfermedad. Palabras clave: factores de riesgo, tromboembolismo venoso. aBStraC Background: Venous thromboembolic disease is a serious public health problem throughout the world and a major cause of potentially preventable deaths in hospitals. It is necessary to know the risk factors for venous thromboembolic from the emergency services.

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