Determination of nitrogen species (Nitrate, Nitrite and Ammonia Ions) in environmental samples by ion chromatography

Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-613, Poznań, Poland
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies (Impact Factor: 0.87). 01/2006; 15(1):5-18.


The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated development of all kinds of methods allowing determination of different pollutants in different elements of the natural environment, including methods for determining inorganic nitrogen ions. Many of the methods used so far have proven insufficiently sensi-tive, selective or accurate and recently much attention has been paid to ion chromatography, which seems most promising. This paper reviews applications of ion chromatography for determining nitrate, nitrite and ammonium ions in environmental samples and in food products along with ISO standards and the relevant methods proposed by the US EPA and Dionex. Literature examples describe the application of ion chromatography for determining NO 3 -, NO 2 -and NH 4 + ions in water, waste water, air, food products and other complex matrix samples. Critical analysis of the methods based on ion chromatography is presented.

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Available from: Rajmund Michalski, Jul 29, 2014
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    • "Analytical methods for simultaneous determination of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate are scarce. The usual methods employ, for example, liquid chromatography with conductivity detection for anions and use of post-column derivatization to form indophenol blue, with subsequent spectrophotometric detection for ammonium [9]; other ionic chromatographic variants are also listed [10]. Apart from this, there are other methods based on flow injection systems that may employ redox conversion of species. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents the first study and development of an electronic tongue analysis system for the monitoring of nitrogen stable species: nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in water. The electronic tongue was composed of an array of 15 potentiometric poly(vinyl chloride) membrane sensors sensitive to cations and anions plus an artificial neural network (ANN) response model. The building of the ANN model was performed in a medium containing sodium, potassium, and chloride as interfering ions, thus simulating real environmental samples. The correlation coefficient in the cross-validation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium was satisfactory in the three cases with values higher than 0.92. Finally, the utility of the proposed system is shown in the monitoring of the photoelectrocatalytic treatment of nitrate.
    Microchemical Journal 09/2013; 110:273-279. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2013.04.018 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "They are unstable and, depending on conditions, can be converted into nitrates or ammonia. Their presence in water can be as a result of industrial-scale processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use or use of nitrite salts as corrosion inhibitors [5]. High concentrations of these ions can indicate contamination of water by agricultural run-off, refuse dump leachate and human or animal wastes [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate and nitrite content of water samples from Pretoria and Vaal Triangle areas in Gauteng, South Africa. Water samples were collected weekly for four weeks from selected sites and analyzed by ion chromatography. The primary focus of this research was to determine the impact that the companies and agricultural activities have on the water systems in Gauteng since this area is highly industrialized and lots of agricultural activities are taking place. In Vaal River, for the four weeks of study, nitrite concentration ranged from 1.003 ± 0.015-1.0419 ± 0.35 mg/L whilst no nitrite were detected in Bedworth Lake during the same period. The concentration of nitrate from Bedworth Lake on the other hand ranged from 10.113 ± 2.36 – 13.993 ± 3.67 mg/L. No nitrite were detected in Vaal Barrage and nitrate concentrations were found to be ranging between 3.109 ± 0.33 and 3.333 ± 0.84 mg//L. Nitrite concentration in Bossdam ranged from 1.777 ± 0.15 and 1.984 ± 0.59 mg/L and nitrate concentration ranged from 12.852 ± 3.98 and 14.344 ± 2.85 mg/L. In Vaal Dam, nitrite concentration ranged from 0.992 ± 0.094 and 1.686 ± 0.02 mg/L whilst nitrate concentration was found to be between 13.030 ± 3.92 and 15.717 ± 4.79 mg/L. samples from taps showed high concentration of nitrite at Themba with concentration of 3.00 ± 0.19 mg/L and lowest at 1.262 ± 0.31 at Akasia. The highest concentration of nitrate was observed at Akasia at 14.137 ± 3.88 mg/L and lowest concentration was obtained in Cullinan at 10.397 ± 2.88 mg/L. All eight sites were found to comply with the WHO and USEPA recommended levels
    International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences 07/2013; 8(2):207-219.
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    • "Farmers often use nitrogen fertilizers to increase crop yields. The main anthropogenic sources of nitrates in the environment are municipal and industrial wastes, and avoidably are artificial fertilizers (Michalski and Kurzyca, 2006). Nitrate itself is relatively nontoxic but its metabolites may produce a number of health effects (Mensinga et al, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrate is found naturally in foods and at high concentrations in certain vegetables. Nitrogen is the main limiting factor for most field crops, and nitrate is the major form of nitrogen absorbed by crop plants. Farmers often use nitrogen fertilizers to increase crop yields. Nitrate itself is relatively non-toxic but its metabolites may produce a number of health effects. In the South of Tehran, farmers there use rather high amounts of fertilizers than they should. Such high use may be due either to their ignorance or their needs to get quicker production when prices of the products in markets are high. The goal of this survey was to demonstrate the effects of environmental factors such as soil quality as well as the effect of farming practices, fertilizer types and amounts on nitrate content in some kinds of cultivated vegetables by which lettuce and spinach were chosen. The study was conducted in five conventional and greenhouse farms in the south of Tehran during winter, spring and summer 2011. One-hundred fifty lettuce and 60 spinach plants from 2 to 6 locations were sampled. A pair of conventional and greenhouse fields that have been managed by the same grower was selected to compare the effect of farming practices on nitrate content in Romania lettuce. On the other hand, 3 farms compare with each other due to the kind of fertilizers using. All fields are located in the south of Tehran, Baghershahr and Share-ray. The results from the survey in greenhouse spinach fields showed that not only the kind of greenhouse applied fertilizers but also soil characteristics can significantly affect nitrate levels in plants. Grown spinach using cow manure tended to have higher nitrate than grown spinach using compost.
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