EU regulations on the traceability and detection of GMOs: difficulties in interpretation, implementation and compliance

Cab Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 01/2010; 2. DOI: 10.1079/PAVSNNR20072077

ABSTRACT Europe has probably the strictest GMO regulation in the world. Its objectives are to give max-imum protection of public health and the environment, while at the same time providing a science-based regulatory structure where biotechnology can flourish. In contrast to the situation in the USA, European opinion on the health and environmental biosafety of GMOs has been highly polarized, with the result that the public has expressed the desire of having an informed choice in what they are eating. Consequently, the European Union has introduced legislation on the trace-ability and detection of GMOs, including labelling of food and feed containing GMOs, or derived products thereof, above a defined threshold of fortuitous presence. This review article sum-marizes EC regulations, directives and recommendations on traceability and labelling, and dis-cusses the practical problems involved in their implementation. These include the definition of the labelling threshold and the units of measure, sampling of large cargos, mixtures of GMOs, stacked genes, unauthorized GMOs, unknown GMOs and asynchronous approval. The ways in which the EC integrated project Co-Extra is contributing to the resolution of these problems are also discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: John Davison, Jun 29, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The literature on international regulatory regimes has highlighted how rival standards can create different points of convergence. Scholarly attention has also focused on how the European Union (EU) and the United States (USA) attempt to 'export' their environmental standards internationally. Here, we explore the effectiveness of these attempts by means of third states' decisions to ratify the Carta-gena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, a multilateral environmental agreement regulating genetically modified organisms that is promoted by the EU but opposed by the USA. Our findings confirm that both rivals are able to influence the ratification decision of states, but they also suggest that these effects may have different origins. Countries relying more heavily on US markets for food exports tend to be less likely to ratify the Cartagena Protocol, while countries that have applied for EU membership are more likely to ratify the protocol.
    Public Administration 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/padm.12176 · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Recent Trends for Enhancing the Diversity and Quality of Soybean Products, 10/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-533-4
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A high-throughput multiplex assay for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was developed on the basis of the existing SNPlex method designed for SNP genotyping. This SNPlex assay allows the simultaneous detection of up to 48 short DNA sequences (approximately 70 bp; "signature sequences") from taxa endogenous reference genes, from GMO constructions, screening targets, construct-specific, and event-specific targets, and finally from donor organisms. This assay avoids certain shortcomings of multiplex PCR-based methods already in widespread use for GMO detection. The assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest that this assay is reliable, flexible, and cost- and time-effective for high-throughput GMO detection.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2008; 56(24):11596-606. DOI:10.1021/jf801482r · 3.11 Impact Factor