Article

Nutrición y alimentación en moluscos bivalvos

01/2008;

ABSTRACT Farías, A. 2008. Nutrición y alimentación en moluscos bivalvos. En A. Lovatelli, A. Farías e I. Uriarte (eds). Estado actual del cultivo y manejo de moluscos bivalvos y su proyección futura: factores que afectan su sustentabilidad en América Latina. Taller Técnico Regional de la FAO. 20-24 de agosto de 2007, Puerto Montt, Chile. FAO Actas de Pesca y Acuicultura. No. 12. Roma, FAO. pp. 297–308. RESUMEN Se diferencia la producción de bivalvos en cultivos controlados, cultivos de engorda y poblaciones sometidas a extracción pesquera y se describe el tipo de estudios de nutrición y de alimentación que en ellos se ha realizado. Se indican los principales tipos de estudio nutricional que se ha realizado en mitílidos, ostreidos y venéridos. Se discuten las mayores problemáticas de los estudios nutricionales y los requerimientos para solucionarlas. Se identifican las necesidades de cooperación internacional para fortalecer estudios nutricionales en bivalvos y se concluye acerca de las principales proyecciones que tiene el desarrollo de la investigación en nutrición para la acuicultura de moluscos bivalvos.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
176 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted with larvae of the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera fed on a regime of living algae (an equal mixture of Tahitian Isochrysisaff. galbana and Pavlova salina) either partially or completely substituted with heterotrophically grown spray-dried algae (Tetraselmis suecica). Two experiments were conducted; in the first, 1-day old larvae were cultured for 13 days and, in the second, 13 days old larvae were culture for 7 days. In both experiments larvae were fed the following proportions of live algae (LA) and dried Tetraselmis (DT); (1) 100% LA, (2) 75% LA + 25% DT, (3) 50% LA + 50% DT, (4) 25% LA + 75% DT; and (5) 100% DT. The optimal diets for maximum larval growth were 100% LA and 75% LA + 25% DT resulting in larvae with a mean shell length (SL) of 132 ± 3.8 and 131 ± 2.7 µm, respectively, at day 13. This showed that 25% substitution of live micro-algae with DT is possible without affecting growth of P. margaritiferalarvae of less than 150 µm SL. There was no significant difference in survival of P. margaritifera larvae fed 100% LA, 75% LA + 25% DT and 50% LA + 50% DT over a period of 13 days. Highest survival (43.7%) occurred in larvae fed 100% DT while lowest (approximately 18%) occurred in controls (50% live micro-algae and unfed) during the first experiment. The result of the second experiment indicated that with increasing size, larvae are capable of accepting a higher proportion of dried Tetraselmis in their diet. There were no significant differences in larval growth or survival, between treatments where LA was partially and completely substituted diets with DT.
    Aquaculture International 01/2002; 10(4). · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although information on bivalve nutrition is still very scarce, several studies have demonstrated the importance of lipids, in particular triglycerides, as a source of energy and essential fatty acids in the early life stages. Experimental diets used so far to study bivalve nutrition either heavily pollute the water or are too complex to prepare in a hatchery. The potential use of lipid emulsions as off-the-shelf supplements was evaluated through the analytical verification of the ingestion and incorporation of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) by the juvenile sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus fed lipid emulsions of different fatty acid composition as a supplement to Isochrysis sp. (clone T-Iso). The average lipid content on the scallops fed the lipid supplements was 20% higher compared to that in the control fed algae only (3.29 ± 0.16 versus 2.75% of dry weight, respectively). Changes in the fatty acid composition, in particular of n-3 HUFA, were demonstrated in total lipids, polar lipids, and triglycerides of juvenile sea scallops supplemented with lipid emulsions on the basis of ethyl ester concentrates of n-3 HUFA and were dependent on the level and proportion of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 present in the emulsion. The effective incorporation of essential fatty acids from lipid emulsions indicated that the supplementation of lipid emulsions to live algae may improve and standardize the dietary supply of lipids and fatty acids in hatchery production of bivalves.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mass-production of micro-algae has been recognized by several authors as the main bottle-neck for the culture of bivalve seed. This has prompted a search for alternatives to on-site algal production, such as dried heterotrophically-grown algae, preserved algal pastes, micro-encapsulated diets, and yeasts. However the extent to which these products have been tried, and rejected or retained by hatchery operators is poorly documented. Also, the actual algal requirement and production cost of the bivalve seed industry is difficult to estimate. The present inquiry allowed the collection of data concerning the requirement of live algae and its associated costs encountered in 50 commercial and experimental hatcheries from all over the world. Furthermore, the hatchery operators were questioned about their experience with alternatives for live algae, the quality and quantity of hatchery produced algae and bivalve seed, and the employment of this sector in aquaculture. The capacity of the algal production facilities ranged between 1 m³ for a few research laboratories to nearly 500 m³ for one commercial hatchery. The total algal production capacity reported by 37 hatcheries amounted to about 500 m³ algal culture day<sup>-1</sup>, which is equivalent to about 50 kg of dry biomass. The total cost of algal production in 1990 reported by 20 hatcheries approximated US $700,000 and averaged about 30% of the total seed production cost. The estimates for the algal production cost ranged from US $50 to 400 per kg dry weight. About a third of the questioned operators considered algal production as a limiting factor in the rearing of bivalve seed, whereas over 50% planned an expansion of the algal cultures and more than 90% was interested in the use of suitable artificial diet. The large interest for alternatives for on-site algal production was further demonstrated by the fact that more than 50% of the operators claimed to have experimented with artificial diets. Despite the extensive research efforts, artificial diets are rarely applied in the routine process of bivalve seed production and are mostly considered as a useful backup diet.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
266 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014