The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem

Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.95). 10/2010; 49(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.012


a b s t r a c t This cross-sectional study investigated gender differences on domains of stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states (depression and anxiety) as well as the association between stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states using a sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 1508). The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all stress domains and on emotional states compared with boys. Con-versely, boys scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life, school per-formance and adult responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. Moreover, the associations between stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states. The identification of the potential protective role of self-esteem in relation to ado-lescents' emotional outcomes represents an important step toward developing preventive interventions for children and adolescents.

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    • "It has also been argued that stress is a signal that the organism is struggling to get stability and equilibrium (Pearlin, 1982). In marketing, scholars have primarily addressed stress in terms of life changing events, suggesting that individuals may change their consumption habits and behaviour in order to experience relief (Moksnes et al., 2010). Some scholars have argued that stress contributes to the development of compulsion and materialism (Rindfleisch et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The compulsive buying (CB)behaviour has become topics of increasing interest to researchers and policy makers, particularly because researches have shown that it can influence consumer behaviour and well-being. However, a clear picture of how this phenomenon arises has proven elusive. Using the adolescents perceived level of stress as an integrative framework, the purpose of this paper is to derive hypotheses from two theoretical perspectives (the stress and CB behaviour), and uses a survey of adolescents (15-18) year in India to test the hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach – The present study is the first to experimentally manipulate important stressors in the lives of adolescents, i.e. familial and non-familial; and measures its impact on CB among a sample of 15-18-year old adolescents. Next, the authors investigate the relationship between CB and post-purchase regret and then whether gender moderates the stress-CB relationship. Findings – The present study finds that adolescents increasingly turn to CB in an attempt to cope with heightened levels of stress due to familial and non-familial factors. Surprisingly, findings reveal that non-familial factors are not a major source of stress among adolescents. Gender was not found to moderate stress-CB relationship. Both boys and girls were found to respond to higher levels of stress with higher incidences of CB. Results suggest that CB behaviour is a common coping strategy for adolescents from both genders. The findings indicate that one's experiences and circumstances in adolescence are related to their CB behaviour, thus a framework has been used to elucidate them, have important implications for theory and practice. Originality/value – The study makes some inimitable and significant contributions to the literature. It portrays one of few studies to investigate CB during adolescence period – a hard to reach population. Here authors experimentally manipulate stress levels to investigate its impact on CB. The study's findings in regard to gender's impact on the stress-CB relationship suggest that CB begins during adolescence period and is a common coping strategy for both boys and girls.
    08/2015; 4(3):251-274. DOI:10.1108/SAJGBR-08-2014-0054
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    • "The internal consistency of the scale is found to be high, with Cronbach's a of .91 (Byrne et al. 2007) and .96 (Moksnes et al. 2010b). Moreover, this depression scale has shown positive and significant correlations with the measure of state anxiety (r = .67) "
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of the significance of life satisfaction (LS) for adolescent health and well-being, the past decades have yielded limited progress in investigating the psychometric properties of a well-used inventory measuring LS, The satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in adolescents. The present study aimed at investigating the factor structure, gender invariance, and convergent validity of the Norwegian version of the five-item SWLS in adolescents 13–18 years. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,073 adolescents from rural areas in Mid-Norway, and the data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group analyses in AMOS. Results from the CFA supported a single-factor structure with correlated residual variances between items 4 and 5. The results from the multi-group analyses indicated configural and metric invariance of SWLS between genders, as indicated by invariant factor structure and factor loadings. The SWLS also showed high reliability and correlated in expected directions with measures of emotional symptoms and self-esteem, supporting the convergent validity of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the SWLS need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however the present results indicate that the SWLS is a questionnaire appropriate for assessing LS in a population of Norwegian adolescents.
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    • "life events and chronic stressors, and with contextual variables related to the child's school (e.g., type of school, number of students per class). From adolescence onward, girls report a higher incidence of daily stressors than do boys (Moksnes, Moljord, Espnes, & Byrne, 2010; Murray, Byrne, & Rieger, 2011). However, such sex differences are not found in earlier stages of development, although childhood has been less widely studied in this regard (Byrne et al., 2011; Trianes et al., 2009). "
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