The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem

Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST/NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Nidaros DPS, Division of Psychiatry, Olavs University Hospital, St, Trondheim, Norway; School of Psychology, Australian National University, ACT 0200, Canberra, Australia
Personality and Individual Differences 10/2010; 49(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.012

ABSTRACT a b s t r a c t This cross-sectional study investigated gender differences on domains of stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states (depression and anxiety) as well as the association between stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states using a sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 1508). The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all stress domains and on emotional states compared with boys. Con-versely, boys scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life, school per-formance and adult responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. Moreover, the associations between stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states. The identification of the potential protective role of self-esteem in relation to ado-lescents' emotional outcomes represents an important step toward developing preventive interventions for children and adolescents.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives A negative self-view is a prominent factor in most cognitive vulnerability models of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been increased attention to differentiate between the implicit (automatic) and the explicit (reflective) processing of self-related evaluations. This longitudinal study aimed to test the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and symptoms of adolescent depression and social anxiety disorder. Two complementary models were tested: the vulnerability model and the scarring effect model. Method Participants were 1641 first and second year pupils of secondary schools in the Netherlands. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, self-esteem Implicit Association Test and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale were completed to measure explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem and symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), respectively, at baseline and two-year follow-up. Results Explicit self-esteem at baseline was associated with symptoms of MDD and SAD at follow-up. Symptomatology at baseline was not associated with explicit self-esteem at follow-up. Implicit self-esteem was not associated with symptoms of MDD or SAD in either direction. Limitations We relied on self-report measures of MDD and SAD symptomatology. Also, findings are based on a non-clinical sample. Conclusions Our findings support the vulnerability model, and not the scarring effect model. The implications of these findings suggest support of an explicit self-esteem intervention to prevent increases in MDD and SAD symptomatology in non-clinical adolescents.
    Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 03/2014; 45(1):113-121.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Stress is a highly unpleasant state of emotional arousal that may relates to adjustment problems such as depression, anxiety, aggression and performance in school. This study aimed to determine the role of gender in the relationship between perceived stress and adjustment among adolescents in metropolitan and urbanized cities of Malaysia. Methods: A total of 441 school-going adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from 15 secondary schools were selected as respondents of the study by using multistage cluster sampling method with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling technique. Results: Findings of the study indicated that adolescents with low level of stress of home life, low level of stress of peer pressure and school/leisure conflict had significantly better emotional and school functioning. T-test analysis revealed significant difference in emotional functioning between male and female respondents. Multivariate analyses revealed that gender moderated the relationship between stress experiences and adjustment. Conclusion: In conclusion, stress has a negative influence on adolescents’ adjustment. Female adolescents are more affected by stress than males. Keywords: gender, stress, adjustment, adolescent
    Jokull 07/2013; 63(7):221-234. · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated. METHODS: A total of 1,239 adolescents from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions. RESULTS: The results showed that boys scored higher than girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender × self-esteem or age × self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents' life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.
    Quality of Life Research 05/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014