Article

The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem

Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.86). 10/2010; 49(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.012

ABSTRACT a b s t r a c t This cross-sectional study investigated gender differences on domains of stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states (depression and anxiety) as well as the association between stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states using a sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 1508). The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all stress domains and on emotional states compared with boys. Con-versely, boys scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life, school per-formance and adult responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. Moreover, the associations between stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states. The identification of the potential protective role of self-esteem in relation to ado-lescents' emotional outcomes represents an important step toward developing preventive interventions for children and adolescents.

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