The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem

Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.86). 10/2010; 49(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.012

ABSTRACT a b s t r a c t This cross-sectional study investigated gender differences on domains of stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states (depression and anxiety) as well as the association between stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states using a sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 1508). The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all stress domains and on emotional states compared with boys. Con-versely, boys scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life, school per-formance and adult responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. Moreover, the associations between stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states. The identification of the potential protective role of self-esteem in relation to ado-lescents' emotional outcomes represents an important step toward developing preventive interventions for children and adolescents.

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    • "The internal consistency of the scale is found to be high, with Cronbach's a of .91 (Byrne et al. 2007) and .96 (Moksnes et al. 2010b). Moreover, this depression scale has shown positive and significant correlations with the measure of state anxiety (r = .67) "
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of the significance of life satisfaction (LS) for adolescent health and well-being, the past decades have yielded limited progress in investigating the psychometric properties of a well-used inventory measuring LS, The satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in adolescents. The present study aimed at investigating the factor structure, gender invariance, and convergent validity of the Norwegian version of the five-item SWLS in adolescents 13–18 years. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,073 adolescents from rural areas in Mid-Norway, and the data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group analyses in AMOS. Results from the CFA supported a single-factor structure with correlated residual variances between items 4 and 5. The results from the multi-group analyses indicated configural and metric invariance of SWLS between genders, as indicated by invariant factor structure and factor loadings. The SWLS also showed high reliability and correlated in expected directions with measures of emotional symptoms and self-esteem, supporting the convergent validity of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the SWLS need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however the present results indicate that the SWLS is a questionnaire appropriate for assessing LS in a population of Norwegian adolescents.
    Social Indicators Research 09/2013; 118(September). DOI:10.1007/s11205-013-0451-3 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    • "life events and chronic stressors, and with contextual variables related to the child's school (e.g., type of school, number of students per class). From adolescence onward, girls report a higher incidence of daily stressors than do boys (Moksnes, Moljord, Espnes, & Byrne, 2010; Murray, Byrne, & Rieger, 2011). However, such sex differences are not found in earlier stages of development, although childhood has been less widely studied in this regard (Byrne et al., 2011; Trianes et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational level of the father and mother), class (number of students per class), school (type of school), and province (number of inhabitants per province). Participants were 6,078 students from primary years 3-6 in the region of Andalusia (Spain). After conducting a multilevel regression analysis, the final fitted model was a random intercept and random slope model (at the school level) for the variable age, with the fixed factors being the variables social adaptation, life events and chronic stressors, and the educational level of the father and mother. This model yielded a specific profile of daily stressors in childhood: children with the highest levels of daily stressors are younger, present aggressive or inhibited behavior, have experienced more life events and chronic stressors, and have parents who did not complete their primary education. The results provide relevant information for the design of psychoeducational interventions in relation to children's daily stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    School Psychology Quarterly 08/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1037/spq0000020 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    • "depression, anxiety, and aggression), and performance in school. Moksnes et al. (2010) revealed that stress in everyday life is related to negative emotional states. Stress of home life is positively associated with depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Stress is a highly unpleasant state of emotional arousal that may relates to adjustment problems such as depression, anxiety, aggression and performance in school. This study aimed to determine the role of gender in the relationship between perceived stress and adjustment among adolescents in metropolitan and urbanized cities of Malaysia. Methods: A total of 441 school-going adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years from 15 secondary schools were selected as respondents of the study by using multistage cluster sampling method with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling technique. Results: Findings of the study indicated that adolescents with low level of stress of home life, low level of stress of peer pressure and school/leisure conflict had significantly better emotional and school functioning. T-test analysis revealed significant difference in emotional functioning between male and female respondents. Multivariate analyses revealed that gender moderated the relationship between stress experiences and adjustment. Conclusion: In conclusion, stress has a negative influence on adolescents’ adjustment. Female adolescents are more affected by stress than males. Keywords: gender, stress, adjustment, adolescent
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