[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) was originally identified as a β-cell receptor. However, GPR119 activation also promotes incretin secretion and enhances peptide YY action. We examined whether GPR119-dependent control of glucose homeostasis requires preservation of peptidergic pathways in vivo. Insulin secretion was assessed directly in islets, and glucoregulation was examined in wild-type (WT), single incretin receptor (IR) and dual IR knockout (DIRKO) mice. Experimental endpoints included plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and peptide YY. Gastric emptying was assessed in WT, Glp1r-/-, DIRKO, Glp2r-/-, and GPR119-/- mice treated with the GPR119 agonist AR231453. AR231453 stimulated insulin secretion from WT and DIRKO islets in a glucose-dependent manner, improved glucose homeostasis, and augmented plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and insulin in WT and Gipr-/- mice. In contrast, although AR231453 increased levels of GLP-1, GIP, and insulin, it failed to lower glucose in Glp1r-/- and DIRKO mice. Furthermore, AR231453 did not improve ip glucose tolerance and had no effect on insulin action in WT and DIRKO mice. Acute GPR119 activation with AR231453 inhibited gastric emptying in Glp1r-/-, DIRKO, Glp2r-/-, and in WT mice independent of the Y2 receptor (Y2R); however, AR231453 did not control gastric emptying in GPR119-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that GPR119 activation directly stimulates insulin secretion from islets in vitro, yet requires intact IR signaling and enteral glucose exposure for optimal control of glucose tolerance in vivo. In contrast, AR231453 inhibits gastric emptying independent of incretin, Y2R, or Glp2 receptors through GPR119-dependent pathways. Hence, GPR119 engages multiple complementary pathways for control of glucose homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr40 is expressed in beta-cells where it contributes to free fatty acid (FFA) enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, other sites of Gpr40 expression, including the intestine, have been suggested. The transcription factor IPF1/PDX1 was recently shown to bind to an enhancer element within the 5'-flanking region of Gpr40, implying that IPF1/PDX1 might regulate Gpr40 expression. Here, we addressed whether 1) Gpr40 is expressed in the intestine and 2) Ipf1/Pdx1 function is required for Gpr40 expression.
In the present study, Gpr40 expression was monitored by X-gal staining using Gpr40 reporter mice and by in situ hybridization. Ipf1/Pdx1-null and beta-cell specific mutants were used to investigate whether Ipf1/Pdx1 controls Gpr40 expression. Plasma insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose levels in response to acute oral fat diet were determined in Gpr40 mutant and control mice.
Here, we show that Gpr40 is expressed in endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract, including cells expressing the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP, and that Gpr40 mediates FFA-stimulated incretin secretion. We also show that Ipf1/Pdx1 is required for expression of Gpr40 in beta-cells and endocrine cells of the anterior gastrointestinal tract.
Together, our data provide evidence that Gpr40 modulates FFA-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells not only directly but also indirectly via regulation of incretin secretion. Moreover, our data suggest a conserved role for Ipf1/Pdx1 and Gpr40 in FFA-mediated secretion of hormones that regulate glucose and overall energy homeostasis.
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