Securing geographic routing in wireless sensor networks


We consider the security of geographic routing (GR) that is widely used in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks due to its scalability. In GR, a node greedily forwards a packet to the neighbor that is closest to the destination. Thus, GR only requires a node to maintain the location information of its one hop neighbors. However, very little work has been done to secure GR. In a potential attack, malicious nodes may falsify their location information. Also, a malicious node can send an excessive number of packets to overload the receiving nodes and block legitimate packets from other sources. Alternatively, it can drop or misdirect received packets. To shed light on these problems, we propose an approach for robust GR via rate control, packet scheduling , and trust-based multi-path routing. In a simulation study, we also show that our robust GR can circumvent and route against attacks.

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Available from: Kyoung-Don Kang, Mar 03, 2014
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    • "We also believe that the defense against flooding attacks should be charged to a set of (selected) more powerful nodes in the network, to avoid exhausting the scarce sensor resources. Table 2: The security features of trust-aware location-based routing solutions Trusted Routing Approach Forwarding attack detection Integrity attacks detection Trust model attacks detection Lifetime consideration Location verification Detection of flooding attack Trusted GPSR (Pirzada, [16]) √ √ Resilient GR (Kang, [17] "
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to a wide set of security attacks, including those targeting the routing protocol functionality. The applicability of legacy security solutions is disputable (if not infeasible), due to severe restrictions in node and network resources. Although confidentiality, integrity and authentication measures assist in preventing specific types of attacks, they come at high cost and, in most cases, cannot shield against routing attacks. To face this problem, we propose a secure routing protocol which adopts the geographical routing principle to cope with the network dimensions, and relies on a distributed trust model for the detection and avoidance of malicious neighbours. A novel function which adaptively weights location, trust and energy information drives the routing decisions, allowing for shifting emphasis from security to path optimality. The proposed trust model relies on both direct and indirect observations to derive the trustworthiness of each neighboring node, while it is capable of defending against an increased set of routing attacks including attacks targeting the indirect trust management scheme. Extensive simulation results reveal the advantages of the proposed model.
    Wireless Personal Communications 03/2013; 69(2). DOI:10.1007/s11277-012-0613-7 · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Based on the observation that different security requirements may exist, it has been proposed (e.g. [2], [3]) to set a trust value threshold expressing the desired security level and have packets routed through nodes exceeding this threshold only, thus, prohibiting routing through nodes with low trust. This could be useful for applications with high security requirements, i.e. when security is more important and vital than the operation itself. "
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    ABSTRACT: Security is currently a weak point of wireless sensor networks (WSN) impeding their proliferation although they offer flexible and low cost solutions for many every-day life applications. In WNSs, routing of data from the sensor nodes towards the destination/base station relies on the cooperation among neighbouring nodes. The realization of a trust management system which allows each node to define a trust value for each neighbour has been proposed as a powerful tool towards defending against the routing attacks. In this paper, we investigate how the trust information can be incorporated in the routing protocol and we compare based on simulation results three different trust-aware geographical routing algorithms.
    ELMAR2009, Zadar Croatia; 09/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are vulnerable to a wide set of attacks which threaten the network operation. Although communication and security technologies for computer networks have reached a mature stage, their applicability in WSNs is disputable due to their infrastructure-less operation and the limited node and network resources. Focusing on the routing procedure, this relies in the cooperation among neighboring nodes and a long list of attacks that can cause serious damage have already been identified. The situation is futher aggravated as the next generation wireless sensor network will be larger and larger. To face this problem, we propose a secure routing protocol (Ambient Trust Sensor Routing, ATSR) which adopts the geographical routing principle to cope with the network dimensions and part of the routing attacks, while it relies on a distributed trust model for the detection of another part of the routing attacks. Both direct and indirect trust information is taken into account to evaluate the trustworthiness of each neighbour. An important feature of the proposed routing solution is that it takes into account the remaining energy of each neighbour, thus allowing for better load balancing and network lifetime extension. Based on computer simulation results we evaluate the additional energy consumption caused by the exchange of indirect trust information and the benefits stemming from the adoption of our algorithm.
    WSEAS Transactions on Communications 09/2009; 8(9).
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