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Maillard Reaksiyonları ve Reaksiyon Ürünlerinin Gıdalardaki Önemi

ABSTRACT ZET Gıdalarda bulunan serbest amino asitlerin, proteinlerin veya peptitlerin serbest amino grupları ile indirgen şekerler veya lipit oksidasyon ürünleri arasında gerçekleşen ve enzimatik olmayan kahverengileşme reaksiyonları "Maillard Reaksiyonu" olarak bilinir. Maillard Reaksiyonlarının oluşumu reaksiyona giren bileşenlerin türüne, miktarına, ortam pH'sı, sıcaklık ve su aktivitesine bağlı olarak değişim göstermektedir. Hidroksimetil furfural (HMF), furfural, melanoidler ve akrilamit Maillard Reaksiyon Ürünlerinden (MRÜ) en bilinenleridir. MRÜ ekmeğin, kurabiyelerin, keklerin, etin, biranın, çikolatanın, patlamış mısırın, pilavın lezzetinden kısmen sorumlu olmasına rağmen ileri bozunma ürünlerinin sitotoksik, genotoksik ve karsinojenik özelliklerinden dolayı gıdalarda oluşması her zaman istenmez. Bununla birlikte son yıllarda özellikle erken aşamadaki MRÜ'lerin faydalı yönleri in vitro çalışmalarda rapor edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada gıdalarda gerçekleşen Maillard reaksiyonları hakkındaki çalışmalar derlenmiş ve gıdalardaki önemi ortaya konulmuştur.

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