Published studies about the association of obesity with mortality have used body mass index (BMI) data collected more than 10 years ago, potentially limiting their current applicability, particularly given evidence of a secular decline in obesity-related mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI and mortality in a representative, contemporary United States sample.
This was a population-based observational study of data from 50,994 adults aged 18 to 90 years who responded to the 2000 to 2005 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Cox regression analyses were employed to model survival during up to 6 years of follow-up (ascertained via National Death Index linkage) by self-reported BMI category (underweight, <20 kg/m(2); normal weight, 20-<25 [reference]; overweight, 25-<30; obese, 30-<35; severely obese, ≥35), without and with adjustment for diabetes and hypertension. Survival by BMI category also was modeled for diabetic and hypertensive individuals. All models were adjusted for sociodemographics, smoking, and Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys response year.
In analyses not adjusted for diabetes or hypertension, only severe obesity was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.59). After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, severe obesity was no longer associated with mortality, and milder obesity (BMI 30-<35) was associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.97). There was a significant interaction between diabetes (but not hypertension) and BMI (F [4, 235] = 2.71; P = .03), such that the mortality risk of diabetes was lower among mildly and severely obese persons than among those in lower BMI categories.
Obesity-associated mortality risk was lower than estimated in studies employing older BMI data. Only severe obesity (but not milder obesity or overweight) was associated with increased mortality, an association accounted for by coexisting diabetes and hypertension. Mortality in diabetes was lower among obese versus normal weight individuals.
"Certain associations have been demonstrated between the body weight categories of underweight, overweight, and obese (including its two subcategories: moderately obese and severely obese) and premature mortality. Recent national population-based studies in Canada and the United States [2,5,6] have demonstrated that being in the underweight or severely obese BMI category is associated with an increased risk of mortality amongst adults in the general population when compared to their peers in the normal weight BMI category (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2). These same studies also demonstrated a decreased risk of mortality for those in the overweight category when compared to those in the normal weight category: a result which was supported by a recent meta-analysis of all-cause mortality for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight, which included 97 studies with a combined sample size of more than 2.88 million individuals and more than 270,000 deaths . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While many studies have examined differences between body mass index (BMI) categories in terms of mortality risk and health-related quality of life (HRQL), little is known about the effect of body weight on health expectancy. We examined life expectancy (LE), health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE), and proportion of LE spent in nonoptimal (or poor) health by BMI category for the Canadian adult population (age >= 20).
Respondents to the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) were followed for mortality outcomes from 1994 to 2009. Our study population at baseline (n=12,478) was 20 to 100 years old with an average age of 47. LE was produced by building abridged life tables by sex and BMI category using data from the NPHS and the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System. HALE was estimated using the Health Utilities Index from the Canadian Community Health Survey as a measure of HRQL. The contribution of HRQL to loss of healthy life years for each BMI category was also assessed using two methods: by calculating differences between LE and HALE proportional to LE and by using a decomposition technique to separate out mortality and HRQL contributions to loss of HALE.
At age 20, for both sexes, LE is significantly lower in the underweight and obesity class 2+ categories, but significantly higher in the overweight category when compared to normal weight (obesity class 1 was nonsignificant). HALE at age 20 follows these same associations and is significantly lower for class 1 obesity in women. Proportion of life spent in nonoptimal health and decomposition of HALE demonstrate progressively higher losses of healthy life associated with lowered HRQL for BMI categories in excess of normal weight.
Although being in the overweight category for adults may be associated with a gain in life expectancy as compared to normal weight adults, overweight individuals also experience a higher proportion of these years of life in poorer health. Due to the descriptive nature of this study, further research is needed to explore the causal mechanisms which explain these results, including the important differences we observed between sexes and within obesity subcategories.
Population Health Metrics 11/2013; 11(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1478-7954-11-21 · 2.11 Impact Factor
"We used the national death certificate database and merged death certificate data until December 31, 2008. Deaths were divided into those resulting from CVD (ICD-10 codes I00-I99) , diseases of the heart (ICD-10 codes I00-I09, I11, I13, I20 -I51), and stroke (ICD-10 codes I60-I69) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes and obesity each increases mortality, but recent papers have shown that lean Asian persons were at greater risk for mortality than were obese persons. The objective of this study is to determine whether an interaction exists between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, which can modify the risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Subjects who were over 20 years of age, and who had information regarding BMI, past history of diabetes, and fasting blood glucose levels (n=16 048), were selected from the Korea Multi-center Cancer Cohort study participants. By 2008, a total of 1290 participants had died; 251 and 155 had died of CVD and stroke, respectively. The hazard for deaths was calculated with hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) by Cox proportional hazard model.
Compared with the normal population, patients with diabetes were at higher risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.56; HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.76; respectively). Relative to subjects with no diabetes and normal BMI (21 to 22.9 kg/m(2)), lean subjects with diabetes (BMI <21 kg/m(2)) had a greater risk for CVD and stroke deaths (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.57 to 5.09; HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.58 to 6.76; respectively), while obese subjects with diabetes (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) had no increased death risk (p-interaction <0.05). This pattern was consistent in sub-populations with no incidence of hypertension.
This study suggests that diabetes in lean people is more critical to CVD deaths than it is in obese people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This issue includes several articles about various cardiovascular illnesses.(1-4) and another on a disease with increased risk for heart disease: hereditary hemochromatosis.(5) Yet another explores some myth busting about mortality and diabetes.(6) Two articles provide data with the support of patient and/or family organizations (Parent Heart Watch(1) and the Iron Disorders Institute(5)). Another 2 articles address maternal-child health, one considers treatment of hyperbilirubinemia,(7) and one describes an innovative team structure for pre-, post-, and intrapartum care.(8) We also provide preliminary data on azithromycin for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pop quiz: What is the common contaminant with cocaine that causes serious side effects? What are these side effects? And another: What nonliver disease should be considered for children with elevated transaminase levels? (See the brief reports for answers.) Two reviews provide up-to-the minute practical facts for vaccinations and treatment-resistant hypertension that can be immediately incorporated into clinical practice. We also have an update on physician perspectives after 2 years of electronic medical record use and another with insights about the satisfaction of family physicians who are working in health centers in the first few years out of their residency.
The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 07/2012; 25(4):403-5. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2012.04.120113 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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