Adenosine triphosphate regulates NADPH oxidase activity leading to hydrogen peroxide production and COX-2/PGE(2) expression in A549 cells
ABSTRACT Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for most of all lung cancers, which is the leading cause of mortality in human beings. High level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the features of NSCLC and related to the low survival rate of NSCLC. However, whether extracellular nucleotides releasing from stressed resident tissues contributes to the expression of COX-2 remains unclear. Here, we showed that stimulation of A549 cells by adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS) led to an increase in COX-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis, revealed by Western blotting, RT-PCR, promoter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, ATPγS induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through the activation of NADPH oxidase. The increase of ROS level resulted in activation of the c-Src/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB cascade. We also found that activated Akt was translocated into the nucleus and recruited with NF-κB and p300 to form a complex. Thus, activation of p300 modulated the acetylation of histone H4 via the NADPH oxidase/c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB cascade stimulated by ATPγS. Our results are the first to show a novel role of NADPH oxidase-dependent Akt/p65/p300 complex formation that plays a key role in regulating COX-2/PGE(2) expression in ATPγS-treated A549 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that ATPγS stimulated activation of NADPH oxidase, resulting in generation of ROS, which then activated the downstream c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB/p300 cascade to regulate the expression of COX-2 and synthesis of PGE(2) in A549 cells. Understanding the regulation of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) release by ATPγS on A549 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of NSCLC.
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether Interleukin-13 (IL-13) or IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, could induce cell death of activated microglia by prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) which is a domain of prothrombin distinct from thrombin. Microglia cell death was detected at eight days after co-treatment of pKr-2 with IL-13/IL-4 in vitro. This cell death was assessed by live assay, dead assay, TUNEL and MTT assay. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evident as assessed by superoxide assay, WST-1 and analyzing DCF in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia. The IL-13/IL-4-enhanced ROS production and cell death in pKr-2 activated microglia was partially inhibited by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin and/or by several antioxidants. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia, which was partially inhibited by apocynin and an antioxidant, trolox. Additional studies demonstrated that microglia cell death was reversed by treatment with COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Our data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and COX-2 activation through NADPH oxidase may contribute to IL-13/IL-4 induced cell death of pKr-2 activated microglia.Journal of neuroimmunology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.09.014 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) is the NADPH oxidase responsible for the H2O2 gradient formed in tissues after injury to trigger the early recruitment of leukocytes. Little is known about the signals that modulate H2O2 release from DUOX1 and whether the H2O2 gradient can orchestrate the inflammatory response in vivo. In this study, we report on a dominant-negative form of zebrafish Duox1 that is able to inhibit endogenous Duox1 activity, H2O2 release and leukocyte recruitment after tissue injury, with none of the side effects associated with morpholino-mediated Duox1 knockdown. Using this specific tool, we found that ATP release following tissue injury activates purinergic P2Y receptors, and modulates Duox1 activity through phospholipase C (PLC) and intracellular calcium signaling in vivo. Furthermore, Duox1-derived H2O2 is able to trigger the NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. These data reveal that extracellular ATP acting as an early danger signal is responsible for the activation of Duox1 via a P2YR/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling pathway and the production of H2O2, which, in turn, is able to modulate in vivo not only the early recruitment of leukocytes to the wound but also the inflammatory response through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; 192(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302902 · 5.36 Impact Factor
Article: Purinergic signalling and cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Receptors for extracellular nucleotides are widely expressed by mammalian cells. They mediate a large array of responses ranging from growth stimulation to apoptosis, from chemotaxis to cell differentiation and from nociception to cytokine release, as well as neurotransmission. Pharma industry is involved in the development and clinical testing of drugs selectively targeting the different P1 nucleoside and P2 nucleotide receptor subtypes. As described in detail in the present review, P2 receptors are expressed by all tumours, in some cases to a very high level. Activation or inhibition of selected P2 receptor subtypes brings about cancer cell death or growth inhibition. The field has been largely neglected by current research in oncology, yet the evidence presented in this review, most of which is based on in vitro studies, although with a limited amount from in vivo experiments and human studies, warrants further efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of purinoceptor targeting in cancer.Purinergic Signalling 06/2013; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11302-013-9372-5 · 3.51 Impact Factor