Although the connection of oxidative stress and inflammation has been long recognized in diabetes mellitus, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This study defined the role of 26S proteasomes in promoting vascular inflammatory response in early diabetes mellitus.
The 26S proteasome functionality, markers of autophagy, and unfolded protein response were assessed in (1) cultured 26S proteasome reporter cells and endothelial cells challenged with high glucose, (2) transgenic reporter (Ub(G76V)-green fluorescence protein) and wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice rendered diabetic, and (3) genetically diabetic (Akita and OVE26) mice. In glucose-challenged cells, and also in aortic, renal, and retinal tissues from diabetic mice, enhanced 26S proteasome functionality was observed, evidenced by augmentation of proteasome (chymotrypsin-like) activities and reduction in 26S proteasome reporter proteins, accompanied by increased nitrotyrosine-containing proteins. Also, whereas inhibitor of the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells α proteins were decreased, an increase was found in nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nucleus translocation, which enhanced the NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory response, without affecting markers of autophagy or unfolded protein response. Importantly, the alterations were abolished by MG132 administration, small interfering RNA knockdown of PA700 (proteasome activator protein complex), or superoxide scavenging in vivo.
Early hyperglycemia enhances 26S proteasome functionality, not autophagy or unfolded protein response, through peroxynitrite/superoxide-mediated PA700-dependent proteasomal activation, which elevates NF- ĸB-mediated endothelial inflammatory response in early diabetes mellitus.
"Among proteasome inhibitors, MG132 is specific, potent, reversible, and cell permeable and plays a key role in blocking the degradation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in mammalian cells by the 26S complex without affecting its ATPase or isopeptidase activities . Reportedly, up-regulation of Nrf2 by its activators, including MG132, has been found to potentially be a preventive approach for diabetic complications [5, 7–9], including diabetes-induced vascular injuries    . However, there was no report yet whether, upregulating Nrf2 can also efficiently cure or slow the progression of established diabetic complications. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study tested whether MG132 increases vascular nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription to provide a therapeutic effect on diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta. To this end, three-month-old OVE26 diabetic and age-matched control mice were intraperitoneally injected with MG-132, 10 μ g/kg daily for 3 months. OVE26 transgenic type 1 diabetic mice develop hyperglycemia at 2-3 weeks of age and exhibit albuminuria at 3 months of age with mild increases in TNF- α expression and 3-NT accumulation in the aorta. Diabetes-induced significant increases in the wall thickness and structural derangement of aorta were found in OVE26 mice with significant increases in aortic oxidative and nitrosative damage, inflammation, and remodeling at 6 months of diabetes, but not at 3 months of diabetes. However, these pathological changes seen at the 6 months of diabetes were abolished in OVE26 mice treated with MG-132 for 3 months that were also associated with a significant increase in Nrf2 expression in the aorta as well as transcription of downstream genes. These results suggest that chronic treatment with low-dose MG132 can afford an effective therapy for diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta, which is associated with the increased Nrf2 expression and transcription.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2013; 2013:879516. DOI:10.1155/2013/879516 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Recent studies have demonstrated that high glucose, the glucose-mediated post-translational protein modifications, and diabetes are modulators of proteasome activity   . These reports link diabetes or hyperglycemia to UPS and raise many questions on how diabetes or hyperglycemia can modulate proteasome targeting and activity, and whether this modulation occurs in a cellspecific manner. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise link between hyperglycemia and its deleterious effects on retinal and kidney microvasculature, and more specifically loss of retinal perivascular supporting cells including smooth muscle cell/pericytes (SMC/PC), in diabetes are not completely understood. We hypothesized that differential cellular proteasome activity contributes to sensitivity of PC to high glucose-mediated oxidative stress and vascular rarefaction. Here we show that retinal endothelial cells (EC) have significantly higher proteasome peptidase activity compared to PC. High glucose treatment (HGT) increased the level of total ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in cultured retinal PC and EC, but not photoreceptor cells. In addition, in vitro proteasome activity assays showed significant impairment of proteasome chymotrypsin-like peptidase activity in PC, but not EC. The PA28-α/-β and PA28-β/-γ protein levels were also higher in the retina and kidney glomeruli of diabetic mice, respectively. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that high glucose has direct biological effects on cellular proteasome function, and this modulation might be protective against cellular stress or damage induced by high glucose.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; 432(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.01.101 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins are continuously affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Damaged proteins influence several intracellular pathways and result in different disorders and diseases. Aggregation of damaged proteins depends on the balance between their generation and their reversal or elimination by protein repair systems and degradation, respectively. With regard to protein repair, only few repair mechanisms have been evidenced including the reduction of methionine sulfoxide residues by the methionine sulfoxide reductases, the conversion of isoaspartyl residues to L-aspartate by L-isoaspartate methyl transferase and deglycation by phosphorylation of protein-bound fructosamine by fructosamine-3-kinase. Protein degradation is orchestrated by two major proteolytic systems, namely the lysosome and the proteasome. Alteration of the function for both systems has been involved in all aspects of cellular metabolic networks linked to either normal or pathological processes. Given the importance of protein repair and degradation, great effort has recently been made regarding the modulation of these systems in various physiological conditions such as aging, as well as in diseases. Genetic modulation has produced promising results in the area of protein repair enzymes but there are not yet any identified potent inhibitors, and, to our knowledge, only one activating compound has been reported so far. In contrast, different drugs as well as natural compounds that interfere with proteolysis have been identified and/or developed resulting in homeostatic maintenance and/or the delay of disease progression.
Molecular Aspects of Medicine 10/2012; 35(1). DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2012.09.001 · 10.24 Impact Factor
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