Allelic variation for a candidate gene for GS7, responsible for grain shape in rice.
ABSTRACT Grain shape is an important component of end-use quality in rice. The genomic location of the grain shape QTL GS7 was narrowed to lie within a 4.8-kb segment on chromosome 7. The homologous region in cv. Nipponbare contains no annotated genes, while two open reading frames were predicted, one of which (ORF2) represented a likely candidate for GS7 gene on the basis of correlation between sequence variation and phenotype. Semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of ORF2 transcription showed that the gene was active in both the leaf and panicle when the cv. D50 allele was present, but not in the presence of the cv. HB277 allele. A microsatellite-based phylogeny and a re-sequencing analysis of ORF2 among a set of 52 diverse rice accessions suggested that the cv. D50 GS7 allele may have originated from the tropical japonica genepool. The effect on grain length of the alternative alleles at GS7and GS3 showed that combination type 3/A was associated with longer grains than type 1/A. An Indel marker developed within the ORF2 sequence was informative for predicting grain length.
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ABSTRACT: The Q gene is largely responsible for the widespread cultivation of wheat because it confers the free-threshing character. It also pleiotropically influences many other domestication-related traits such as glume shape and tenacity, rachis fragility, spike length, plant height, and spike emergence time. We isolated the Q gene and verified its identity by analysis of knockout mutants and transformation. The Q gene has a high degree of similarity to members of the AP2 family of transcription factors. The Q allele is more abundantly transcribed than q, and the two alleles differ for a single amino acid. An isoleucine at position 329 in the Q protein leads to an abundance of homodimer formation in yeast cells, whereas a valine in the q protein appears to limit homodimer formation. Ectopic expression analysis allowed us to observe both silencing and overexpression effects of Q. Rachis fragility, glume shape, and glume tenacity mimicked the q phenotype in transgenic plants exhibiting post-transcriptional silencing of the transgene and the endogenous Q gene. Variation in spike compactness and plant height were associated with the level of transgene transcription due to the dosage effects of Q. The q allele is the more primitive, and the mutation that gave rise to Q occurred only once leading to the world's cultivated wheats.Genetics 02/2006; 172(1):547-55. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The GS3 locus located in the pericentromeric region of rice chromosome 3 has been frequently identified as a major QTL for both grain weight (a yield trait) and grain length (a quality trait) in the literature. Near isogenic lines of GS3 were developed by successive crossing and backcrossing Minghui 63 (large grain) with Chuan 7 (small grain), using Minghui 63 as the recurrent parent. Analysis of a random subpopulation of 201 individuals from the BC3F2 progeny confirmed that the GS3 locus explained 80-90% of the variation for grain weight and length in this population. In addition, this locus was resolved as a minor QTL for grain width and thickness. Using 1,384 individuals with recessive phenotype (large grain) from a total of 5,740 BC3F2 plants and 11 molecular markers based on sequence information, GS3 was mapped to a DNA fragment approximately 7.9 kb in length. A full-length cDNA corresponding to the target region was identified, which provided complete sequence information for the GS3 candidate. This gene consists of five exons and encodes 232 amino acids with a putative PEBP-like domain, a transmembrane region, a putative TNFR/NGFR family cysteine-rich domain and a VWFC module. Comparative sequencing analysis identified a nonsense mutation, shared among all the large-grain varieties tested in comparison with the small grain varieties, in the second exon of the putative GS3 gene. This mutation causes a 178-aa truncation in the C-terminus of the predicted protein, suggesting that GS3 may function as a negative regulator for grain size. Cloning of such a gene provided the opportunity for fully characterizing the regulatory mechanism and related processes during grain development.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2006; 112(6):1164-71. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops, and early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number. This improved yield established barley as a founder crop for the Near Eastern Neolithic civilization. The barley spike has one central and two lateral spikelets at each rachis node. The wild-type progenitor (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) has a two-rowed phenotype, with additional, strictly rudimentary, lateral rows; this natural adaptation is advantageous for seed dispersal after shattering. Until recently, the origin of the six-rowed phenotype remained unknown. In the present study, we isolated vrs1 (six-rowed spike 1), the gene responsible for the six-rowed spike in barley, by means of positional cloning. The wild-type Vrs1 allele (for two-rowed barley) encodes a transcription factor that includes a homeodomain with a closely linked leucine zipper motif. Expression of Vrs1 was strictly localized in the lateral-spikelet primordia of immature spikes, suggesting that the VRS1 protein suppresses development of the lateral rows. Loss of function of Vrs1 resulted in complete conversion of the rudimentary lateral spikelets in two-rowed barley into fully developed fertile spikelets in the six-rowed phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the six-rowed phenotype originated repeatedly, at different times and in different regions, through independent mutations of Vrs1.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2007; 104(4):1424-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor