Deep Brain Stimulation of Anteromedial Globus Pallidus Interna for Severe Tourette's Syndrome
ABSTRACT Multiple anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been proposed for the treatment of severe Tourette's syndrome. In this open study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of DBS of the anteromedial globus pallidus interna on tic severity and common comorbidities.
Eleven patients (eight of them men, mean age=39 years) with severe and medically intractable Tourette's syndrome underwent implantation of Medtronic quadripolar electrodes in the globus pallidus interna bilaterally. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Secondary outcome measures included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Follow-up occurred at 1 month and then at a mean of 14 months after surgery (range=4-30 months).
Ten patients (91%) reported improvement in tic severity soon after DBS. Overall, there was a 48% reduction in motor tics and a 56.5% reduction in phonic tics at final follow-up. Six patients (54.5%) had a more than 50% reduction, sustained for at least 3 months, in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale score. Only two patients required ongoing pharmacotherapy for tics after surgery, and patients improved significantly on all secondary measures. One patient did not tolerate DBS and discontinued treatment after 3 months. Greater anxiety in two patients and hardware malfunction in three patients were noteworthy adverse outcomes.
The results suggest anteromedial globus pallidus interna DBS for Tourette's syndrome is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for a subgroup of patients with severe Tourette's syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study. A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies. Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study.
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ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may improve disabling tics in severely affected medication and behaviorally resistant Tourette syndrome (TS). Here we review all reported cases of TS DBS and provide updated recommendations for selection, assessment, and management of potential TS DBS cases based on the literature and implantation experience. Candidates should have a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM V) diagnosis of TS with severe motor and vocal tics, which despite exhaustive medical and behavioral treatment trials result in significant impairment. Deep brain stimulation should be offered to patients only by experienced DBS centers after evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. Rigorous preoperative and postoperative outcome measures of tics and associated comorbidities should be used. Tics and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions should be optimally treated per current expert standards, and tics should be the major cause of disability. Psychogenic tics, embellishment, and malingering should be recognized and addressed. We have removed the previously suggested 25-year-old age limit, with the specification that a multidisciplinary team approach for screening is employed. A local ethics committee or institutional review board should be consulted for consideration of cases involving persons younger than 18 years of age, as well as in cases with urgent indications. Tourette syndrome patients represent a unique and complex population, and studies reveal a higher risk for post-DBS complications. Successes and failures have been reported for multiple brain targets; however, the optimal surgical approach remains unknown. Tourette syndrome DBS, though still evolving, is a promising approach for a subset of medication refractory and severely affected patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) on tic severity and common comorbidities in patients with severe Tourette syndrome that is refractory to pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy. We retrospectively assessed the long-term clinical outcomes of 13 patients with treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome who underwent DBS targeting the GPi at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital from January 1, 2006, through May 31, 2013. The primary outcome was a change in tic severity as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and the secondary outcome was a change in associated behavioral disorders and mood as measured by the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale assessment. Compared with baseline, the mean reduction in the total Yale Global Tic Severity Scale scores at last follow-up (mean, 41.9 months; range, 13-80 months) was 52.1% (range, 4.3%-83.6%), and the mean improvement rates at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months, 30 months, and 36 or more months were 11.8%, 20.0%, 26.8%, 36.7%, 44.7%, 49.0%, and 56.7%, respectively. A paired-sample t test revealed significant improvement of tic symptoms after 6 months of DBS programming (P<.05). The Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome-Quality of Life Scale score improved by a mean of 45.7% (range, 11.0%-77.2%). This study is currently the largest reported GPi DBS case series of patients with treatment-refractory TS with the longest follow-up. Our results support the potential beneficial effect of GPi DBS on disabling tic reduction and improvement of quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 11/2014; 89(11):1506-14. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.05.019 · 5.81 Impact Factor