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44Gbit/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 912, Beijing 100083, China.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 07/2012; 20(14):15093-9. DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.015093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A high speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed based on interleaved PN junctions. This doping profile enabled both high modulation efficiency of V(π)L(π) = 1.5~2.0 V·cm and low doping-induced loss of ~10 dB/cm by applying a relatively low doping concentration of 2 × 10(17) cm(-3). High speed operation up to 40 Gbit/s with 7.01 dB extinction ratio was experimentally demonstrated with a short phase shifter of only 750 μm.

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    • "Microring modulators integrated with a kind of zigzag PN junction was designed and proposed to enhance the EO responses. Compared with the interleaved PN junctions previously proposed [6] and demonstrated [7] [8] [9] by us, the zigzag PN junction provides similar efficiency while with smaller capacitance which enables higher electrical bandwidth up to 51 GHz [10]. The microring waveguide has a bending radius of 11 μm and the width of 550 nm. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present 60 Gbit/s silicon MZI and microring modulators with the PN junctions and electrodes designed for improved modulation efficiency and high speed. WDM modulations of 4×50 Gbit/s have also been demonstrated based on microring modulators.
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    • "The Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices, on the other hand, have the benefit of broader-band operation, but require large footprint and higher power consumption. Up to date, many demonstrations of high-speed modulation in silicon have been reported based on depletion-mode MZI [4]–[6]. However, the carrier depletion modulator suffers low modulation efficiency as the overlap between the optical mode and the depletion region is relatively small. "
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    ABSTRACT: We derive equations that quantify silicon Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) modulator impact upon optical link budget for NRZ transmissions based solely upon modulator extinction ratio (ER), the efficiency-loss figure of merit (FOM), and peak-to-peak drive voltage (Vpp). Our modulator link penalty equations transform the modulator efficiency-loss FOM from a simple device quality metric into a means of predicting how design and technology choices impact system margin. Our results indicate that, with a 17.8 V-cm FOM and 1 Vpp drive, designing an MZI to have an ER anywhere within the large range from 3.5-10 dB leads to nearly constant link margins, identical to within 0.5 dB.
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