44Gbit/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 912, Beijing 100083, China.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 07/2012; 20(14):15093-9. DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.015093
Source: PubMed


A high speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed based on interleaved PN junctions. This doping profile enabled both high modulation efficiency of V(π)L(π) = 1.5~2.0 V·cm and low doping-induced loss of ~10 dB/cm by applying a relatively low doping concentration of 2 × 10(17) cm(-3). High speed operation up to 40 Gbit/s with 7.01 dB extinction ratio was experimentally demonstrated with a short phase shifter of only 750 μm.

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Available from: Xi Xiao, Sep 17, 2014
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    • "The carrier concentration at in the waveguide is measure based on the value of carrier concentration. The following equation expresses the calculation of refractive index change and free carrier absorption loss at 1.55 m wavelength due to free carrier injection of the device [11]:the change of refractive index, n can be calculated [7] "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper highlights the study on various structure of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) optical phase modulators based on free carrier dispersion effect. The proposed modulators employ the forward biased P-I-N diode structure integrated in the waveguide and will be working at 1.55 μm optical telecommunications wavelength. Three kinds of structure are compared systematically where the p+ and n+ doping positions are varied. The modeling and characterization of the SOI phase modulators was carried out by 3D numerical simulation package. Our results show that the position of doping regions have a great influences to the device performance. It was discovered that the best structure in this work demonstrated modulation efficiency of 0.015 V cm with a length of 155 μm.
    Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 03/2014; 125(6):1800–1803. DOI:10.1016/j.ijleo.2013.09.050 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Microring modulators integrated with a kind of zigzag PN junction was designed and proposed to enhance the EO responses. Compared with the interleaved PN junctions previously proposed [6] and demonstrated [7] [8] [9] by us, the zigzag PN junction provides similar efficiency while with smaller capacitance which enables higher electrical bandwidth up to 51 GHz [10]. The microring waveguide has a bending radius of 11 μm and the width of 550 nm. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present 60 Gbit/s silicon MZI and microring modulators with the PN junctions and electrodes designed for improved modulation efficiency and high speed. WDM modulations of 4×50 Gbit/s have also been demonstrated based on microring modulators.
    Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013; 03/2013
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    • "The Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices, on the other hand, have the benefit of broader-band operation, but require large footprint and higher power consumption. Up to date, many demonstrations of high-speed modulation in silicon have been reported based on depletion-mode MZI [4]–[6]. However, the carrier depletion modulator suffers low modulation efficiency as the overlap between the optical mode and the depletion region is relatively small. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first high-speed silicon Michelson interferometer (MI) modulator with two 500 μm-long phase shifters. The utilized MI optical structure is an enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with both arms incorporated with reflective mirrors. The light in the MI travels back and forth along the phase shifting waveguides and therefore doubles the effective length of light-carrier interaction. Improvement on the modulation efficiency is experimentally demonstrated. Our MI modulator shows high efficiency with a low figure of merit VπLπ of 0.72 V· cm ∼ 0.91V· cm under the bias of −1 V∼−6 V. High-speed modulations are performed at 25 Gbit/s and 30 Gbit/s with the extinction ratio of 8 dB and 6.5 dB, respectively, showing great potential in the future optical interconnects.
    IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 03/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1109/LPT.2013.2238625 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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