Knockdown of AKT2 expression by RNA interference inhibits proliferation, enhances apoptosis, and increases chemosensitivity to the anticancer drug VM-26 in U87 glioma cells
ABSTRACT The AKT2 kinase (protein kinas Bβ) is frequently overexpressed in malignant gliomas. In this study, the human glioblastoma cell line U87 was stably transfected with a lentivirus vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting AKT2. Knockdown of AKT2 by the shRNA inhibited U87 cell proliferation and increased the rate of apoptosis. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that cells stably underexpressing AKT2 showed lower expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and enhanced expression of the apoptosis effector caspase-3 compared to U87 cells stably transfected with a control vector. Furthermore, expression levels of AKT2 were correlated with the IC50 of the antitumor drug VM-26 (teniposide); the VM-26 IC50 was reduced from 6.46±0.42μg/ml in control glioma cells to 1.15±0.22μg/ml in U87 cells underexpressing AKT2. Combined AKT2 knockdown and VM-26 treatment inhibited cell proliferation in vitro more effectively than either treatment alone. Knockdown of AKT2 expression was associated with decreased expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) without affecting MRP1 mRNA expression. However, the mRNA and protein levels of MDR1 (p-glycoprotein) were unaffected by AKT2 knockdown. These results indicate that inhibition of AKT2 expression may be an effective means for overcoming AKT2-associated chemoresistance in human malignant glioma cells and may represent a potential gene-targeting approach to treat glioma.
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ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by inherent resistance to chemotherapy. Earlier studies demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) might be involved in the chemosensitivity of cancers. MicroRNA let-7, a putative tumor suppressor, is dysregulated in many cancers. Our study aims to investigate the exact role of let-7 in chemotherapy sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in RCC. The clinical significance of let-7b and let-7c expression in surgically resected specimens was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the survival of 786-O cells treated with let-7b or let-7c combined with 5-FU. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Akt2 and caspase-7. Luciferase assay was used to detect the direct binding of let-7b and let-7c to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Akt2. Expression of let-7b and let-7c was significantly decreased in 32 paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens and the dysregulation of let-7b was associated with pathological grade. Transfection of let-7b or let-7c combined with 5-FU inhibited proliferation and potentiated the antitumor efficacies of 5-FU at tolerated concentration. let-7b and let-7c suppressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmid containing the 3'-UTR of Akt2. Overexpression of let-7b and let-7c reduced Akt2 expression, and Akt2 inhibition enhanced the sensitivity to 5-FU by affecting apoptotic pathway. Expression of let-7b and let-7c was frequently decreased in clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues. The dysregulation of let-7b and let-7c may be involved in chemoresistance of RCC cells to 5-FU by down-regulating Akt2.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2015; 13(1):175. DOI:10.1186/s12957-015-0596-4 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hitherto, limited clinical impact has been achieved in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBMs). Although phytochemicals found in medicinal herbs can provide mankind with new therapeutic remedies, single agent intervention has failed to bring the expected outcome in clinical trials. Therefore, combinations of several agents at once are gaining increasing attractiveness. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crude alkaloid (CAERS) and flavonoid (CFEZO) extracts prepared from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale, respectively, on the growth of human GBM cell line, U251. R. stricta and Z. officinale are traditionally used in folkloric medicine and have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Combination of CAERS and CFEZO treatments synergistically suppressed proliferation and colony formation and effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis in U251 cells. Apoptosis induction was mediated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, increased Bax : Bcl-2 ratio, enhanced activities of caspase-3 and -9, and PARP-1 cleavage. CAERS and CFEZO treatments decreased expression levels of nuclear NF-κBp65, survivin, XIAP, and cyclin D1 and increased expression level of p53, p21, and Noxa. These results suggest that combination of CAERS and CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of GBM.BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:260210. DOI:10.1155/2014/260210 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The oncogene AEG-1 (MTDH) is highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and many other types of cancer, where it activates multiple signaling pathways that drive proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance, radioresistance and metastasis. AEG-1 activates the Akt signaling pathway and Akt and c-Myc are positive regulators of AEG-1 transcription, generating a positive feedback loop between AEG-1 and Akt in regulating tumorigenesis. Here we describe in GBM cells a direct interaction between an internal domain of AEG-1 and the PH domain of Akt2, a major driver in GBM. Expression and interaction of AEG-1 and Akt2 are elevated in GBM and contribute to tumor cell survival, proliferation and invasion. Clinically, in silico gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of patient specimens showed that AEG-1 and Akt2 expression correlated with GBM progression and reduced patient survival. AEG-1-Akt2 interaction prolonged stabilization of Akt2 phosphorylation at S474, regulating downstream signaling cascades which enable cell proliferation and survival. Disrupting AEG-1-Akt2 interaction by competitive binding of the Akt2-PH domain led to reduced cell viability and invasion. When combined with AEG-1 silencing, conditional expression of Akt2-PH markedly increased survival in an orthotopic mouse model of human GBM. Our study uncovers a novel molecular mechanism by which AEG-1 augments glioma progression and offers a rationale to block AEG-1-Akt2 signaling function as a novel GBM treatment.Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(24). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2978 · 9.28 Impact Factor