When cells change functions or activities (such as during differentiation, response to extracellular stimuli, or migration), gene expression undergoes large-scale reprogramming, in cell type- and function-specific manners. Large changes in gene regulation require changes in chromatin architecture, which involve recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes and epigenomic modification enzymes to specific genomic loci. Transcription factors must also be accurately assembled at these loci. SATB1 is a genome organizer protein that facilitates these processes, providing a nuclear architectural platform that anchors hundreds of genes, through its interaction with specific genomic sequences; this activity allows expression of all these genes to be regulated in parallel, and enables cells to thereby alter their function. We review and describe future perspectives on SATB1 function in higher-order chromatin structure and gene regulation, and its role in metastasis of breast cancer and other tumor types.
"This protein was shown to have a high affinity for binding to base-unpairing regions (BURs), which are genomic DNA sequences with high unfolding potential, containing clusters of sequences (approximately 20–40 base pairs long) with a bias in G and C distribution, with one DNA strand contains only A, T and C residues , –. Importantly, since BUR sequences are thought to be found all throughout the genome and since SATB1 demonstrated a specificity for these BUR sequences, it became evident that SATB1 could, through its interactions with different BUR sequences in different gene promoters, cause the looping of chromatin , –. These chromatin loops could, in turn, potentially result in the close physical proximity and coordinated regulation of genes that would otherwise remain silent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plakoglobin (γ-catenin) is a homolog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. Plakoglobin participates in cell-cell adhesion as a component of the adherens junction and desmosomes whereas its signaling function is mediated by its interactions with various intracellular protein partners. To determine the role of plakoglobin during tumorigenesis and metastasis, we expressed plakoglobin in the human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC9) cells and compared the mRNA profiles of parental SCC9 cells and their plakoglobin-expressing transfectants (SCC9-PG). We observed that the mRNA levels of SATB1, the oncogenic chromatin remodeling factor, were decreased approximately 3-fold in SCC9-PG cells compared to parental SCC9 cells. Here, we showed that plakoglobin decreased levels of SATB1 mRNA and protein in SCC9-PG cells and that plakoglobin and p53 associated with the SATB1 promoter. Plakoglobin expression also resulted in decreased SATB1 promoter activity. These results were confirmed following plakoglobin expression in the very low plakoglobin expressing and invasive mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-231-PG). In addition, knockdown of endogenous plakoglobin in the non-invasive mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells (MCF-7-shPG) resulted in increased SATB1 mRNA and protein. Plakoglobin expression also resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1, a SATB1 target gene. Furthermore, the levels of various SATB1 target genes involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis were altered in MCF-7-shPG cells relative to parental MCF-7 cells. Finally, plakoglobin expression resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation, migration and invasion in different carcinoma cell lines. Together with the results of our previous studies, the data suggests that plakoglobin suppresses tumorigenesis and metastasis through the regulation of genes involved in these processes.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78388. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078388 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Recently, accumulating data suggests that over-expression of SATB1 contributes to tumor progression
. Studies by Han et al. revealed that SATB1 is over-expressed in aggressive breast cancer cells and the level of SATB1 expression had high prognostic significance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Special AT rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) plays a crucial role in the biology of various types of human cancer. However, the role of SATB1 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. In the present study, we sought to investigate the contribution of aberrant SATB1 expression in the progression of NPC and its association with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1).
Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect SATB1 and LMP-1 protein in clinical samples, and the association of SATB1 protein expression with patient clinicopathological characteristics and LMP-1 expression were analyzed. SATB1 expression profiles were evaluated in well-differentiated NPC cell line CNE1, poorly-differentiated CNE2Z, undifferentiated C666-1 and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelia NP-69 cells using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescent staining. After inhibition the SATB1 expression by using SATB1 specific small interfering RNA in these cell lines, the change of cell proliferation was investigated by western blotting analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression and CCK-8 assay, and the cell migration was assessed by Transwell migration assay. Finally, the expressions of SATB1 and PCNA were examined in CNE1 cells that forced LMP-1 expression by fluorescent staining and RT-PCR.
Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SATB1 protein expression was elevated in NPC tissues compared to benign nasopharyngeal tissues (P = 0.005). Moreover, high levels of SATB1 protein expression were positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.025), the status of lymph node metastasis (N classification) (P = 0.018), distant metastasis (M classification) (P = 0.041) and LMP-1 expression status (r = 2.35, P < 0.01) in NPC patients. In vitro experiments demonstrated that an inverse relationship between SATB1 expression and NPC differentiation status, with SATB1 weakly expressed in NP-69 cells and CNE1 cells, and significant increasingly expressed in CNE-2Z and C666-1 cells. Targeted knockdown of SATB1 expression obviously attenuated the proliferation and migration of highly SATB1-expressing CNE2Z and C666-1 cells, but not NP-69 and CNE1 cells. Interestingly, forced LMP-1 expression in CNE1 cells led to a surprisingly increasing SATB1 expression and nuclear location, companying with an up-regulated PCNA expression.
Our results reveal that EBV LMP-1-mediated over-expression of SATB1 is associated with NPC progression, suggesting SATB1 may represent a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC.
Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2013; 11(1):217. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-11-217 · 3.93 Impact Factor
"Involvement of SATB1 in breast cancer has been shown also by independent studies , –. Furthermore, recent reports have expanded the association of SATB1 with multiple types of tumors in addition to breast cancer, such as laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, endometriod endometrial cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, rectal cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and gastric cancer . There have been two reports that do not observe a correlation between expression of SATB1 mRNA and breast malignancy , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2), but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51786. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051786 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Lihua Shi, Zhe Zhang, Li Song, Yiu Tak Leung, Michelle A Petri, Kathleen E Sullivan
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