Genome organizing function of SATB1 in tumor progression.

Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Seminars in Cancer Biology (Impact Factor: 9.14). 07/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2012.06.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT When cells change functions or activities (such as during differentiation, response to extracellular stimuli, or migration), gene expression undergoes large-scale reprogramming, in cell type- and function-specific manners. Large changes in gene regulation require changes in chromatin architecture, which involve recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes and epigenomic modification enzymes to specific genomic loci. Transcription factors must also be accurately assembled at these loci. SATB1 is a genome organizer protein that facilitates these processes, providing a nuclear architectural platform that anchors hundreds of genes, through its interaction with specific genomic sequences; this activity allows expression of all these genes to be regulated in parallel, and enables cells to thereby alter their function. We review and describe future perspectives on SATB1 function in higher-order chromatin structure and gene regulation, and its role in metastasis of breast cancer and other tumor types.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Pancreatic cancer and other pancreaticobiliary type periampullary adenocarcinomas have a dismal prognosis even after resection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Intestinal type periampullary adenocarcinomas generally have a better prognosis, but little is known on optimal neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment. New prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers are needed for improved treatment stratification of patients with both types of periampullary adenocarcinoma. Expression of the Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) has been demonstrated to confer a worse prognosis in several tumour types, whereas its close homologue SATB2 is a proposed diagnostic and favourable prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. The prognostic value of SATB1 and SATB2 expression in periampullary adenocarcinoma has not yet been described.Methods Immunohistochemical expression of SATB1 and SATB2 was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours and a subset of paired lymph node metastases from 175 patients operated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were applied to explore the impact of SATB1 and SATB2 expression on recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).ResultsPositive expression of SATB1 was denoted in 16/106 primary pancreatobiliary type tumours and 11/65 metastases, and in 15/63 primary intestinal type tumours and 4/26 metastases, respectively. Expression of SATB1 was an independent predictor of a significantly shorter RFS and OS in pancreatobiliary type, but not in intestinal type adenocarcinomas. Moreover, SATB1 expression predicted an improved response to adjuvant chemotherapy in both tumour types. SATB2-expression was seen in 3/107 pancreatobiliary type primary tumours, and in 8/61 intestinal type primary tumours. The small number of cases with positive SATB2 expression did not allow for any firm conclusions on its prognostic value.Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential utility of SATB1 as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for chemotherapy response in both intestinal type and pancreatobiliary type periampullary adenocarcinomas, including pancreatic cancer.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2014; 12(1):289. DOI:10.1186/s12967-014-0289-8 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The global gene regulator Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1) has been reported to induce EMT-like changes and be associated with poor clinical outcome in several cancers. This study aims to evaluate whether SATB1 affects the biological behaviors of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) and further elucidate if this effect works through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. The expression of SATB1, E-cadherin (epithelial markers), vimentin (mesenchymal markers) in BTCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues, as well as in two cell lines of bladder cancer were investigated. Whether the SATB1 expression is associated with clinicopathological factors or not was statistically analyzed. Cell invasion and migration, cell cycle, cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in SATB1 knockdown and overexpressed cell lines. Our results showed that the expression of SATB1 was remarkably up-regulated both in BTCC tissues and in bladder cancer cell lines with high potential of metastasis. The results were also associated with EMT markers and poor prognosis of BTCC patients. Moreover, SATB1 induced EMT processes through downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of E-cadherin repressors (Snail, Slug and vimentin). SATB1 also promoted cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell invasion and cell migration, but did not alter cell survival. In conclusion, our results suggest that SATB1 plays a crucial role in the progression of bladder cancer by regulating genes controlling EMT processes. Further, it may be a novel therapeutic target for aggressive bladder cancers.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117518. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117518 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression in CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes depends on the activity of a distant anti-silencer element (ASE) that counteracts the activity of an intergenic silencer. However, the mechanistic basis for ASE activity is unknown. Here, we show that the ASE physically interacts with the distant Rag1 and Rag2 gene promoters in DP thymocytes, bringing the two promoters together to form an active chromatin hub. Moreover, we show that the ASE functions as a classical enhancer that can potently activate these promoters in the absence of the silencer or other locus elements. In thymocytes lacking the chromatin organizer SATB1, we identified a partial defect in Tcra gene rearrangement that was associated with reduced expression of Rag1 and Rag2 at the DP stage. SATB1 binds to the ASE and Rag promoters, facilitating inclusion of Rag2 in the chromatin hub and the loading of RNA polymerase II to both the Rag1 and Rag2 promoters. Our results provide a novel framework for understanding ASE function and demonstrate a novel role for SATB1 as a regulator of Rag locus organization and gene expression in DP thymocytes. © 2015 Hao et al.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1084/jem.20142207 · 13.91 Impact Factor

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