Beneficial role of diosgenin on oxidative stress in aorta of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial role of diosgenin on oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes in aorta of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in experimental rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). From the sixth week, experimental rats received diosgenin at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental periods, diabetic rats exhibited significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin with significant decrease in insulin and total hemoglobin. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and the levels of reduced glutathione were decreased while increases in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers were observed in aortic tissues of diabetic rats. Oral administration of diosgenin to diabetic rats significantly decreased the plasma glucose and increased the insulin level based on a dose dependent manner. Diosgenin at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. was more pronounced effect than the other two doses and used for further studies. All the manifestations observed in diabetic rats were significantly reversed to near normal at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. of diosgenin. These findings suggest that diosgenin could have a beneficial role against aortic damage induced by oxidative stress in diabetic state, which was evidenced by the propensity of diosgenin to modulate the antioxidant defense and to decrease the lipid peroxidation in aorta.
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ABSTRACT: Food consumption with different bioactive compounds could reduce the risk of diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cooked common beans on differentially expressed genes in whole kidney homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After 4weeks of treatment with a cooked bean supplemented (10%) diet, animals fed with Flor de Mayo bean (FMB) exerted the greatest protective effect, since they presented the lowest blood glucose levels, consistent with an increase in blood insulin levels, a decrease in urine albumin and urea levels and an increase in creatinine clearance (P≤.05). Regarding the gene expression of kidneys evaluated using expressed sequence tag, consumption of cooked beans improved the expression of Glu1, Cps1, Ipmk, Cacna1c, Camk1, Pdhb, Ptbp3 and Pim1, which are related to the elimination of ammonium groups, the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative response, as well as cell signaling and apoptosis. In addition, the beneficial effects observed were not related to their polyphenolic and saponin profile, suggesting the activity of other bioactive compounds or the synergistic interaction of these compounds. These results suggest that the consumption of cooked common beans (FMB) might be used as an alternative for the regulation of genes related to renal alterations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.02.006 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality that contributes to pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring aglycone, is present abundantly in fenugreek. The steroidal saponin is being used as a traditional medicine for diabetes. The present study has investigated the effects of diosgenin on lipid profile in the heart and brain, mRNA expression, and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In our study, diosgenin was administered (40 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 45 days to control animals and experimentally induced diabetic rats. The effects of diosgenin on glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids (PLs) in the heart and brain were studied. The levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs, and HMGR activity were increased significantly (P < 0.05) whereas plasma insulin level was decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of diosgenin to diabetic rats significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, PLs levels, and also HMGR activity. In addition, the plasma insulin level was increased in diosgenin-treated diabetic rats. The above findings were correlated with histological observations of the heart and brain. The results showed that administration of diosgenin remarkably increased plasma insulin level with absolute reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, and HMGR level when compared to diabetic control rats. The results have suggested that diosgenin prevents hypercholesterolemia and hepatosteatosis by modulation of enzymatic expression that is associated with cholesterol metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Background Abroma augusta L. (Malvaceae) leaf is traditionally used to treat diabetes in India and Southern Asia. Therefore, current study was performed to evaluate the protective effect of defatted methanol extract of A. augusta leaves (AA) against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated nephropathy and cardiomyopathy in experimental rats.Methods Antidiabetic activity of AA extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was measured in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rat. Fasting blood glucose level (at specific interval) and serum biochemical markers (after sacrifice) were measured. Redox status, transcription levels of signal proteins (NF-¿B and PKCs), mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway (Bad, Bcl-2, caspase cascade) and histological studies were performed in kidneys and hearts of controls and AA treated diabetic rats.ResultsPhytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of taraxerol, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the AA. T2D rats showed significantly (p¿<¿0.01) elevated fasting blood glucose level. Alteration in serum lipid profile and release of membrane bound enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, which ensured the participation of hyperlipidemia and cell membrane disintegration in diabetic pathophysiology. T2DM caused alteration in the serum biochemical markers related to diabetic complications. T2DM altered the redox status, decreased the intracellular NAD and ATP concentrations in renal and myocardial tissues of experimental rats. Investigating the molecular mechanism, activation PKC isoforms was observed in the selected tissues. T2D rats also exhibited an up-regulation of NF-¿B and increase in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-¿) in the renal and cardiac tissues. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in renal and myocardial tissues of the T2D rats. However, Oral administration of AA at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight per day could reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, membrane disintegration, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation and prevented the activation of oxidative stress induced signaling cascades leading to cell death. Histological studies also supported the protective characteristics of AA.Conclusions Results suggest that AA could offer prophylactic role against T2DM and its associated reno- and cardio- toxicity.Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2015; 13(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s12967-014-0364-1 · 3.99 Impact Factor