Onion (Allium cepa) extract attenuates brain edema
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential beneficial effects of onion extract on brain ischemia-induced edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The possible underlying mechanisms are investigated, especially those linked to the antioxidant effects of the onion extract. METHODS: Brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion in mice. Mice were treated intravenously with onion extract 30 min before MCAO. Brain edema and BBB hyperpermeability were evaluated by the measurement of the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation, respectively. The disruption of tight junction proteins was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The level of malondialdehyde was determined using the thiobarbituric acid method. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were determined by spectrophotometric assay. RESULTS: Brain water content in the ischemic hemisphere was significantly reduced by treatment with onion extract. Onion extract also had a significant effect on both the decrease in Evans blue extravasation and the inhibition of zonula occludens-1 and occludin disruption caused by brain ischemia. In addition, onion extract significantly prevented brain ischemia-induced reduction in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and elevation of malondialdehyde level in the brain tissue. CONCLUSION: The results from this study demonstrate that onion extract prevents brain edema, BBB hyperpermeability, and tight junction proteins disruption, possibly through its antioxidant effects in the mouse MCAO model. This study suggests that onion extract may be a beneficial nutrient for the prevention of BBB function during brain ischemia.
Article: Oignon — Allium cepa, bulbe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: L’oignon est particulièrement indiqué pour le patient pléthorique bouffi ou oedémateux, dyspeptique, diabétique, prostatique. Il exerce une activité anti-inflammatoire, antiallergique, et contribue à prévenir certains cancers. Son activité antiseptique et anticatarrhale le rend utile en cas de rhume. Son activité antiagrégante plaquettaire semble insuffisante in vivo. Il est aussi neuroprotecteur et freine l’activité ostéoclastique. On conseille de manger trois à six oignons par jour (30 à 50 g), de préférence crus.Phytotherapie 02/2012; 11(1). DOI:10.1007/s10298-012-0747-5
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ABSTRACT: Eye related diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, conjunctivitis are very common worldwide. With the current scenario India will be among top 5 countries in number of glaucoma cases. Limited discovery of successful drugs for the treatment of such diseases have shifted the focus of scientists towards the use of conventional sources for the treatment. Herbal extracts from Ayurveda have remained an important part of treatment regime in many parts of world even today. For this reason, local herbs possessing curative properties are still being used by local inhabitants due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Because retinal damage involves alterations in oxidative enzymes, blood flow changes and increase in apoptotic signals, herbal extracts are being increasingly tested for their ability to moderate antioxidant machinery and trigger neuroprotective pathways. The present review summarizes some of such herbal extracts which have been tested for their neuroprotective role in eye related diseases. The active components that exert neuroprotective effects have also been discussed alongwith possible mechanisms of action. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/2014; 115(10). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24840 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of onion as functional ingredient on the oxidative status, lipoprotein levels (total cholesterol-TC, HDL-C, LDL-C), triacylglycerides (TAG) and vascular reactivity of mesenteric arteries in hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. Twenty-four animals were fed with three different diets [control, high-cholesterol diet (HC) and high-cholesterol enriched with onion diet (HCO)]. After seven weeks of experimental feeding the rats were euthanized for blood and tissues collection. TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TAG were measured, and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined in plasma. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities were assayed in erythrocyte lysates. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to acetylcholine was evaluated in mesenteric arterial segments. NADPH oxidase (NOX) was also measured by lucigenin-derived chemiluminiscence. The dietary cholesterol content significantly affected plasma lipoprotein levels, increased superoxide generation from NOX, and caused impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the rat mesenteric arteries. Onion ingredient improved antioxidant status in HCO group, as it was evidenced by ABTS(•+) and FRAP values and SOD and GPx enzyme activities compared to the HC-fed group, reduced the increment in NOX activity and reversed endothelial dysfunction promoted by the HC diet. Scavenging of superoxide with TEMPOL or inhibition of NOX with apocynin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation only in HC-fed rats. Enrichment of diet with onion as functional ingredient could be proposed as a complementary approach to prevent or partially modulate vascular dysfunction, reducing some of the risk indexes linked to initial development of atherosclerosis.Nutrition & Metabolism 12/2014; 11:57. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-11-57 · 3.36 Impact Factor