Derivation conditions impact X-inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT Female human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines exhibit variability in X-inactivation status. The majority of hiPSC lines maintain one transcriptionally active X (Xa) and one inactive X (Xi) chromosome from donor cells. However, at low frequency, hiPSC lines with two Xas are produced, suggesting that epigenetic alterations of the Xi occur sporadically during reprogramming. We show here that X-inactivation status in female hiPSC lines depends on derivation conditions. hiPSC lines generated by the Kyoto method (retroviral or episomal reprogramming), which uses leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-expressing SNL feeders, frequently had two Xas. Early passage Xa/Xi hiPSC lines generated on non-SNL feeders were converted into Xa/Xa hiPSC lines after several passages on SNL feeders, and supplementation with recombinant LIF caused reactivation of some of X-linked genes. Thus, feeders are a significant factor affecting X-inactivation status. The efficient production of Xa/Xa hiPSC lines provides unprecedented opportunities to understand human X-reactivation and -inactivation.
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ABSTRACT: Activin/Nodal growth factors control a broad range of biological processes, including early cell fate decisions, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway governs stem cell function in these different stages of development. We describe recent findings that associate Activin/Nodal signalling to pathological conditions, focusing on cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis and its potential as a target for therapies. Moreover, we will discuss future directions and questions that currently remain unanswered on the role of Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 02/2015; 142(4):607-619. DOI:10.1242/dev.091769 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires profound alterations in the epigenetic landscape. During reprogramming, a change in chromatin structure resets the gene expression and stabilises self-renewal. Reprogramming is a highly inefficient process, in part due to multiple epigenetic barriers. Although many epigenetic factors have already been shown to affect self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), only a few of them have been examined in the context of dedifferentiation. In order to improve current protocols of iPSCs generation, it is essential to identify epigenetic drivers and blockages of somatic cell reprogramming.
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ABSTRACT: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines exhibit repeated patterns of genetic variation, which can alter in vitro properties as well as suitability for clinical use. We examined associations between copy-number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 17 and hPSC mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) differentiation. Among 24 hPSC lines, two karyotypically normal lines, BG03 and CT3, and BG01V2, with trisomy 17, exhibited amplification of the WNT3/WNT9B region and rapid mDA differentiation. In hPSC lines with amplified WNT3/WNT9B, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK amplifies canonical WNT signaling by phosphorylating LRP6, resulting in enhanced undifferentiated proliferation. When bFGF is absent, noncanonical WNT signaling becomes dominant due to upregulation of SIAH2, enhancing JNK signaling and promoting loss of pluripotency. When bFGF is present during mDA differentiation, stabilization of canonical WNT signaling causes upregulation of LMX1A and mDA induction. Therefore, CNVs in 17q21.31, a "hot spot" for genetic variation, have multiple and complex effects on hPSC cellular phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.