Derivation conditions impact X-inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT Female human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines exhibit variability in X-inactivation status. The majority of hiPSC lines maintain one transcriptionally active X (Xa) and one inactive X (Xi) chromosome from donor cells. However, at low frequency, hiPSC lines with two Xas are produced, suggesting that epigenetic alterations of the Xi occur sporadically during reprogramming. We show here that X-inactivation status in female hiPSC lines depends on derivation conditions. hiPSC lines generated by the Kyoto method (retroviral or episomal reprogramming), which uses leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-expressing SNL feeders, frequently had two Xas. Early passage Xa/Xi hiPSC lines generated on non-SNL feeders were converted into Xa/Xa hiPSC lines after several passages on SNL feeders, and supplementation with recombinant LIF caused reactivation of some of X-linked genes. Thus, feeders are a significant factor affecting X-inactivation status. The efficient production of Xa/Xa hiPSC lines provides unprecedented opportunities to understand human X-reactivation and -inactivation.
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ABSTRACT: Activin/Nodal growth factors control a broad range of biological processes, including early cell fate decisions, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway governs stem cell function in these different stages of development. We describe recent findings that associate Activin/Nodal signalling to pathological conditions, focusing on cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis and its potential as a target for therapies. Moreover, we will discuss future directions and questions that currently remain unanswered on the role of Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 02/2015; 142(4):607-619. DOI:10.1242/dev.091769 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines exhibit repeated patterns of genetic variation, which can alter in vitro properties as well as suitability for clinical use. We examined associations between copy-number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 17 and hPSC mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) differentiation. Among 24 hPSC lines, two karyotypically normal lines, BG03 and CT3, and BG01V2, with trisomy 17, exhibited amplification of the WNT3/WNT9B region and rapid mDA differentiation. In hPSC lines with amplified WNT3/WNT9B, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK amplifies canonical WNT signaling by phosphorylating LRP6, resulting in enhanced undifferentiated proliferation. When bFGF is absent, noncanonical WNT signaling becomes dominant due to upregulation of SIAH2, enhancing JNK signaling and promoting loss of pluripotency. When bFGF is present during mDA differentiation, stabilization of canonical WNT signaling causes upregulation of LMX1A and mDA induction. Therefore, CNVs in 17q21.31, a "hot spot" for genetic variation, have multiple and complex effects on hPSC cellular phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: X chromosome inactivation, the transcriptional inactivation of one X chromosome in somatic cells of female mammals, has revealed important advances in our understanding of development, epigenetic control, and RNA biology. Most of this knowledge comes from extensive studies in the mouse; however, there are some significant differences when compared to human biology. This is especially true in pluripotent cell types and, over the past few years, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding these differences. This review focuses specifically on recent advances in the mechanism of Xist spreading, the role of Xist in cancer, the effects of reprogramming on X chromosome inactivation in human induced pluripotent stem cells, and new tools for studying X chromosome inactivation.Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 10/2014; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.gde.2014.09.010 · 8.57 Impact Factor