Derivation Conditions Impact X-Inactivation Status in Female Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
ABSTRACT Female human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines exhibit variability in X-inactivation status. The majority of hiPSC lines maintain one transcriptionally active X (Xa) and one inactive X (Xi) chromosome from donor cells. However, at low frequency, hiPSC lines with two Xas are produced, suggesting that epigenetic alterations of the Xi occur sporadically during reprogramming. We show here that X-inactivation status in female hiPSC lines depends on derivation conditions. hiPSC lines generated by the Kyoto method (retroviral or episomal reprogramming), which uses leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-expressing SNL feeders, frequently had two Xas. Early passage Xa/Xi hiPSC lines generated on non-SNL feeders were converted into Xa/Xa hiPSC lines after several passages on SNL feeders, and supplementation with recombinant LIF caused reactivation of some of X-linked genes. Thus, feeders are a significant factor affecting X-inactivation status. The efficient production of Xa/Xa hiPSC lines provides unprecedented opportunities to understand human X-reactivation and -inactivation.
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ABSTRACT: Activin/Nodal growth factors control a broad range of biological processes, including early cell fate decisions, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which the Activin/Nodal signalling pathway governs stem cell function in these different stages of development. We describe recent findings that associate Activin/Nodal signalling to pathological conditions, focusing on cancer stem cells in tumorigenesis and its potential as a target for therapies. Moreover, we will discuss future directions and questions that currently remain unanswered on the role of Activin/Nodal signalling in stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.Development 02/2015; 142(4):607-619. DOI:10.1242/dev.091769 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) acquire embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like epigenetic states, including the X chromosome. Previous studies reported that human iPSCs retain the inactive X chromosome of parental cells, or acquire two active X chromosomes through reprogramming. Most studies investigated the X chromosome states in established human iPSC clones after completion of reprogramming. Thus, it is still not fully understood when and how the X chromosome reactivation occurs during reprogramming. Here, we report a dynamic change in the X chromosome state throughout reprogramming, with an initial robust reactivation of the inactive X chromosome followed by an inactivation upon generation of nascent iPSC clones. iPSCs with two active X chromosomes or an eroded X chromosome arise in passaging iPSCs. These data provide important insights into the plasticity of the X chromosome of human female iPSCs and will be crucial for the future application of such cells in cell therapy and X-linked disease modeling.Stem Cell Reports 06/2014; 2(6). DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.04.003
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ABSTRACT: Transitions between pluripotent and differentiated states are marked by dramatic epigenetic changes. Cellular differentiation is tightly linked to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is associated with X chromosome reactivation (XCR). XCR reverses the silent state of the inactive X, occurring in mouse blastocysts and germ cells. In spite of its importance, little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we examine the role of the long noncoding Tsix RNA and the germline factor, PRDM14. In blastocysts, XCR is perturbed by mutation of either Tsix or Prdm14. In iPSCs, XCR is disrupted only by PRDM14 deficiency, which also affects iPSC derivation and maintenance. We show that Tsix and PRDM14 directly link XCR to pluripotency: first, PRDM14 represses Rnf12 by recruiting polycomb repressive complex 2; second, Tsix enables PRDM14 to bind Xist. Thus, our study provides functional and mechanistic links between cellular and X chromosome reprogramming.Molecular cell 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2013.10.023 · 14.46 Impact Factor