Article

Activity-dependent transport of the transcriptional coactivator CRTC1 from synapse to nucleus.

Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1737, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 31.96). 07/2012; 150(1):207-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy, such as those underlying long-term memory, require transcription. Activity-dependent transport of synaptically localized transcriptional regulators provides a direct means of coupling synaptic stimulation with changes in transcription. The CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC1), which is required for long-term hippocampal plasticity, binds CREB to potently promote transcription. We show that CRTC1 localizes to synapses in silenced hippocampal neurons but translocates to the nucleus in response to localized synaptic stimulation. Regulated nuclear translocation occurs only in excitatory neurons and requires calcium influx and calcineurin activation. CRTC1 is controlled in a dual fashion with activity regulating CRTC1 nuclear translocation and cAMP modulating its persistence in the nucleus. Neuronal activity triggers a complex change in CRTC1 phosphorylation, suggesting that CRTC1 may link specific types of stimuli to specific changes in gene expression. Together, our results indicate that synapse-to-nuclear transport of CRTC1 dynamically informs the nucleus about synaptic activity.

1 Bookmark
 · 
148 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A newly formed memory is temporarily fragile and becomes stable through a process known as consolidation. Stable memories may again become fragile if retrieved or reactivated, and undergo a process of reconsolidation to persist and strengthen. Both consolidation and reconsolidation require an initial phase of transcription and translation that lasts for several hours. The identification of the critical players of this gene expression is key for understanding long-term memory formation and persistence. In rats, the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory requires gene expression in both the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions that process contextual/spatial and emotional information, respectively; IA reconsolidation requires de novo gene expression in the amygdala. Here we report that, after IA learning, the levels of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein δ (C/EBPδ) are significantly increased in both the hippocampus and amygdala. These increases are essential for long-term memory consolidation, as their blockade via antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated knockdown leads to memory impairment. Furthermore, C/EBPδ is upregulated and required in the amygdala for IA memory reconsolidation. C/EBPδ is found in nuclear, somatic, and dendritic compartments, and a dendritic localization of C/EBPδ mRNA in hippocampal neuronal cultures suggests that this transcription factor may be translated at synapses. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses by tetanic stimuli in acute slices, a cellular model of long-term memory, leads to an accumulation of C/EBPδ in the nucleus. We conclude that the transcription factor C/EBPδ plays a critical role in memory consolidation and reconsolidation.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2013; 33(8):3646-58. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: If mRNAs were the only RNAs made by a neuron, there would be a simple mapping of mRNAs to proteins. However, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs; endo-siRNAs, piRNAs, BC1, BC200, antisense and long ncRNAs, repeat-related transcripts, etc.) regulate mRNAs via effects on protein translation as well as transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Not only are genes ON or OFF, but their ability to be translated can be turned ON or OFF at the level of synapses, supporting an enormous increase in information capacity. Here, I review evidence that ncRNAs are expressed pervasively within dendrites in mammalian brain; that some are activity-dependent and highly enriched near synapses; and that synaptic ncRNAs participate in plasticity responses including learning and memory. Ultimately, ncRNAs can be viewed as the post-it notes of the neuron. They have no literal meaning of their own, but derive their functions from where (and to what) they are stuck. This may explain, in part, why ncRNAs differ so dramatically from protein-coding genes, both in terms of the usual indicators of functionality and in terms of evolutionary constraints. ncRNAs do not appear to be direct mediators of synaptic transmission in the manner of neurotransmitters or receptors, yet they orchestrate synaptic plasticity-and may drive species-specific changes in cognition.
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 09/2014; 369(1652).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The subcellular localization and translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) supports functional differentiation between cellular compartments. In neuronal dendrites, local translation of mRNA provides a rapid and specific mechanism for synaptic plasticity and memory formation, and might be involved in the pathophysiology of certain brain disorders. Despite the importance of dendritic mRNA translation, little is known about which mRNAs can be translated in dendrites in vivo and when their translation occurs. Here we collect ribosome-bound mRNA from the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus. We find that dendritic mRNA rapidly associates with ribosomes following a novel experience consisting of a contextual fear conditioning trial. High throughput RNA sequencing followed by machine learning classification reveals an unexpected breadth of ribosome-bound dendritic mRNAs, including mRNAs expected to be entirely somatic. Our findings are in agreement with a mechanism of synaptic plasticity that engages the acute local translation of functionally diverse dendritic mRNAs.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:4510. · 10.74 Impact Factor