Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, I examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of Sri Lanka in 1995/96 and 2006/07.I find that the demand for private tuition classes has increased in recent time among households. It seems that the private tuition expenditure has changed from a luxury good in 1995/96 to a necessity good in 2006/07. If the increased demand for private tuition classes is reflecting parents' concerns on inadequate and poor, but free education in public schools, the Sri Lanka government needs to reconsider its free education policy.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the censored regression (or censored ‘Tobit’) model. The proposed estimator is a generalization of least absolute deviations estimation for the standard linear model, and, unlike estimation methods based on the assumption of normally distributed error terms, the estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal for a wide class of error distributions, and is also robust to heteroscedasticity. The paper gives the regularity conditions and proofs of these large-sample results, and proposes classes of consistent estimators of the asymptotic covariance matrix for both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic disturbances.
    Journal of Econometrics 01/1984; · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new measure of 'voraciousness' in leisure activities is introduced as an indicator of the pace of leisure, facili-tating a theoretical linkage between the literature on time pressure, busyness and harriedness in late modernity, and the literature on cultural consumption. On the methodological side it is shown that time use diaries can pro-vide at least as good a measure of the pace of leisure as survey based measures. Respondents with a high score on the voraciousness measure ('harried' respondents) are not less likely to complete their diaries than less harried respondents. In accord with the findings from the literature on cultural omnivorousness, the most voracious groups are those with high levels of social status and human capital. However, these associations are not due to these groups having either higher income or greater quantities of available leisure time. The pace of leisure ac-tivities must therefore be due to other factors, for example, could a fast pace of out-of-home leisure participation be conceived of as a new marker of status distinction?
    Review of Economics and Statistics 05/1980; 62(2):318-21. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that in some parts of the world private supplementary tutoring is a huge industry with far-reaching economic, social and educational implications, the topic has been neglected by educational researchers. This paper focuses on the nature and determinants of demand for private supplementary tutoring. It first draws on literature from a wide range of countries to identify some conceptual considerations, and then presents data on socio-economic patterns of demand for tutoring in Hong Kong. It highlights the complexity of the topic, and calls for further detailed research in multiple settings.
    Economics of Education Review. 01/2003;


Available from