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Clostridioses dos pequenos ruminantes Clostridiosis of small ruminants

ABSTRACT 2 Setor de clostridioses. Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais (LANAGRO / MG), Brasil ARTIGO DE REVISÃO 23 Resumo: As clostridioses dos pequenos ruminantes são causadas por microrganismos patogênicos do gênero Clostridium. Estes agentes são encontrados no solo e trato digestivo dos animais e do homem. Os clostrídios são bactérias anaeróbias que penetram no corpo do animal na forma de esporos, através de alimentos contaminados ou feridas. As toxinas são produzidas no organismo do animal ou são ingeridas pré-formadas. As infecções e intoxicações causadas por esses agentes são responsáveis por grandes perdas econômicas nos sistemas de produção de pequenos ruminantes. O diagnóstico das clostridioses depende da detecção das toxinas ou detecção in situ do agente bacteriano, no caso das mionecroses e hepatite necrótica. O controle e a profilaxia das clostridioses estão associados a medidas corretas de manejo e, principalmente, ao emprego de vacinas, que são, na maioria das vezes, toxóides e/ou bacterinas, em combinação de dois ou mais agentes. A utilização sistemática de imunógenos tem reduzido em grande parte a mortalidade e as perdas econômicas advindas dos quadros clínicos causados pela multiplicação ou pela ação das toxinas produzidas por microrganismos do gênero Clostridium. Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms of the genus Clostridium cause Clostridiosis in small ruminants. These agents are found in the soil and digestive tract of animals, including human beings. The clostridia are anaerobic microor-ganisms that penetrate in the body of the animals in the form of spores through contaminated food and/or wounds. Toxins are produced inside the organism of the animals or are ingested when preformed. The infections and intoxications caused by these agents are responsible for great economical losses in production systems of small ruminants. The diagnosis of the clostridiosis mediated by toxins depends on the detection of the involved toxin(s) and not on the detection and isolation of the bacterial agent only. The control and prophylaxis of clostridiosis are associated with correct measures of management and vacci-nation. The vaccines are, most of the time, a combination of two or more antigens (toxoids and/or bacterins). The systematic use of immunogens has largely reduced the mortality and the economic losses due to clostridial diseases.

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Jun 1, 2014