Article

Another Nine-Inch Nail for Behavioral Genetics!

Commentary Human Development 01/2006; 49:336-342. DOI: 10.1159/000096532

ABSTRACT About the time that I was completing my doctoral training (in 1971), reactions to Jensen's [1969] paper in the Harvard Educational Review about the heritability of intelligence were beginning to be published [e.g., Hebb, 1970; Hirsch, 1970] and were explaining to social and behavioral scientists the egregious flaws in theory and meth-od associated with behavior genetics. As a neophyte in developmental science, I na-ively believed that the matter of genetic reductionism would have been settled by this exchange, and by the classic paper of Anastasi [1958] and the earlier one by Schneirla [1956]. I was certain that no one would again take seriously the idea that genes (na-ture), split off from the environment, from the multiple levels of the context (or ecol-ogy) of human development (nurture), could provide an independent, noninteractive source of intelligence or of any other functional (or structural) feature of human de-velopment, no matter what dazzling statistical [but ill-founded; e.g., Feldman & Le-wontin, 1975; Layzer, 1974; Wahlsten, 1990] methods were used to estimate the addi-tive and isolated influence of genes on behavior. I was wrong. Across the ensuing third of a century the erroneous claims and mis-interpreted data of behavioral genetics, and of associated biologically reductionist ac-counts of human development (such as sociobiology or evolutionary psychology), have continued to 'rise from the grave' [e.g. Rushton, 2000], despite the biological, psychological and statistical scholarship that should have kept these ideas 'dead and buried' [e.g.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
71 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strengthening human potential for great love-compassion through elaborative development
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although genetic models were in the ascendance within psychology during the early 20th century, the association of early behavioral genetic research with the eugenics movement served to discredit the field in the eyes of many. Twin and adoption studies throughout the latter half of the 20th century helped to reestablish the importance of behavioral genetic models and set the stage for the current focus of the field on developing and testing models of gene-environment interplay. Research findings on developmental behavioral genetic research, gene-environment interaction, and the use of behavioral genetic models to test causal hypotheses are used to highlight the contributions of contemporary behavioral genetic research to psychological research. It is argued that future efforts to investigate models of gene-environment interplay will depend heavily on the field’s ability to identify the specific genetic variants that contribute to individual differences in behavior. The anticipated yield from genome-wide association studies gives much reason to be optimistic about the future vitality of behavior genetics.
    Acta Psychologica Sinica 01/2009; 40(10):1073-1087.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the nutritional status and energy, protein, and micronutrient intake of aged residents living in service houses and to compare how they meet official recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Service house residents (n = 375) in the metropolitan region of Helsinki, Finland. The nutritional status of residents was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Residents' energy, protein, and nutrient intake were calculated from 1-day food diaries and compared with the nutrition recommendations. The mean age of participants was 83 years; 82% were females. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment, 65% were at risk for malnutrition and 21% were malnourished. Energy, protein, and nutrient intake varied greatly among residents. Inadequate energy, protein, and micronutrient intake was common among the oldest residents. Of the whole group, 46% received less than 1570 kcal/d of energy and 47% received less than 60 g/d of protein. Their intake of fiber, vitamin E, vitamin D, and folic acid was especially low. The percentages of residents receiving less than the recommended intake of these nutrients were 98%, 98%, 38%, and 86%, respectively. Taking into account the large number of aged residents suffering from malnutrition or being at risk for malnutrition, low energy, protein, and micronutrient intake was very common. Assessment-based nutritional care should be a significant part in supporting frail older people in service houses.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 05/2011; 12(4):302-7. · 5.30 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from