Article

Evaluación de los principales factores que influyen en la composición fitoquímica de Morus alba (Linn.). I Análisis cualitativo de metabolitos secundarios

26.

ABSTRACT Con el objetivo de detectar la presencia de metabolitos secundarios en cuatro variedades de morera mediante la utilización del tamizaje fitoquímico, se llevó a cabo una investigación en un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial 4 x 3 x 3 y tres repeticiones. En el conjunto hojas-pecíolos-tallos tiernos se investigaron 15 grupos de compuestos y se detectaron los fenoles, los flavonoides, las cumarinas, los carbohidratos solubles, los esteroles, los alcaloides y las saponinas. Estas funciones químicas estuvieron presentes en las cuatro variedades, las tres edades de la biomasa comestible, los tres niveles de fertilización orgánica y las dos épocas. Las menores variaciones se observaron en los fenoles, los esteroides y los carbohidratos solubles; en cambio, los flavonoides, las cumarinas y los alcaloides presentaron fluctuaciones apreciables. Mediante el análisis de conglomerados se pudo comprobar que la frecuencia de corte fue la variable de mayor influencia. En el período poco lluvioso (PPLL) la agrupación por la edad de rebrote fue más marcada que en el período lluvioso (PLL), a excepción de los 60 días. Los porcentajes de miembros de cada conglomerado agrupados en la frecuencia más poblada fueron de 57, 78 y 85 % en el PPLL, y de 67, 62 y 80 % en el PLL. Palabras clave: Antimetabolitos, Morus alba With the objective of detecting the presence of secondary metabolites in four mulberry varieties through the use of phytochemical sieving, a research was carried out in a randomized block design with a 4 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement and three repetitions. In the leaves-petioles-fresh stems set 15 compound groups were investigated and phenols, flavonoids, cumarins, soluble carbohydrates, sterols, alkaloids and saponins were detected. These chemical functions were present in the four varieties, the three ages of edible biomass, the three organic fertilization rates and the two seasons. The lowest variations were observed in phenols, steroids and soluble carbohydrates; however, flavonoids, cumarins and alkaloids showed noticeable fluctuations. Through the conglomerate analysis cutting frequency was proved to be the variable of higher influence. In the dry season (DS) the grouping by regrowth age was more remarkable than in the rainy season (RS), with the exception of the 60 days. The percentages of members of each conglomerate grouped in the most populated frequency were 57, 78 and 85 % in the DS, and 67, 62 and 80 % in the RS.

1 Bookmark
 · 
245 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of some groups of secondary metabolites (phenols, condensed tannins, saponins, cyanogens and alkaloids) in the edible biomass of 41 species in the tropical deciduous forest vegetation of the Central Plains, Venezuela were investigated. Forty four per cent of the species corresponded to leguminous plants. The Mimosoide subfamily contained 50% of the cases; while Faboide and Caesalpinoide were present in 28 and 22%, respectively. Phenols (83%) and alkaloids (61%) showed a greater general distribution. The quadruple combinations of secondary groups were the most abundant in leguminous (33%) and the double in non leguminous species (61%). In some representative species, a marked effect of the season, the forest type, and the geographical location were observed. However, it depended of the phytochemical particularities. By microhistological tests a wide range of acceptability were observed. In general, cattle consumed eagerly species with few metabolites combinations; while goats showed non specific preferences. The edible biomass of analyzed species contains some secondary metabolites groups whose presence, in some cases, varies with season, the forest type and location. Phenols and alkaloids are the groups that require bigger attention for their possible antinutricional repercussion.
    Zootecnia Tropical (ISSN: 0798-7269) Vol 24 Num 3. 01/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phytochemical compositions of six non leguminous species (Azadirachta indica , Cnidoscolus aconitifolius , Ficus carica , Moringa oleifera , Morus alba and Trichantera gigantea ) were evaluated in Trujillo state, Venezuela, using a totally randomized design and five replicates. The crude protein contents were acceptable and mulberry showed a significantly superior level (21.4%). A. indica stood out due to its fibrous fraction (48.9%) and T. gigantea exhibited the highest quantities of non-protein nitrogen (3.5%). P, Ca and Mg levels did not show important variations and the maximum concentrations of K and Na were observed in M. oleifera and T. gigantea (2.65, 0.24 and 2.55 0.26%, respectively). These species, in individual form, also presented the highest contents of soluble carbohydrates (24.1%) and ash (25.8%). Phenols, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins precipitans of proteins (TPP), condensed tannins (CT), steroids, terpens, saponins, slimes, bitter compounds (B. compounds), cyanogens and alkaloids were detected. Phenols, flavonoides, terpens, and steroids showed a wide distribution. A. indica showed the maximum quantity of total polyphenols (4.21%). A. indica, F. carica, and M. oleifera exhibited similar quantities of TPP (0.79-0.90%) and CT (1.56-1.77%). A. indica y M. alba showed the highest alkaloids concentrations. The evaluated species presented an acceptable proximal composition, low presence of protoxic secondary metabolites and low concentrations of possible antinutritional factors. These species constitute a good alternative as supplementary feed in the production systems in the tropic.
    Zootecnia Tropical (ISSN: 0798-7269) Vol 24 Num 4. 01/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: En una plantación de cuatro años de edad sometida a cortes continuos cada 90 días, se llevó a cabo una investigación en un diseño de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial 4 x 4 y tres repeticiones, con el objetivo de cuantificar el contenido de flavonoides totales (Flav) en las hojas y los tallos tiernos de cuatro variedades de morera. Los Flav se encontraron en las hojas en un rango de 1,50 a 1,76% MS y en los tallos tiernos las concentraciones oscilaron entre 0,75 y 1,72% MS. Se observó una diferencia marcada entre los niveles de las hojas y los tallos tiernos, con una mayor variabilidad en los últimos. La época presentó una menor influencia y no se observaron diferencias significativas, en cuanto a la concentración, entre los niveles de fertilización y las variedades. Debido a las pocas variaciones en los niveles de Flav en las diferentes variedades estudiadas, estos metabolitos secundarios se pueden considerar marcadores quimiotaxonómicos de la especie. Palabras clave: Flavonoides, metabolitos, Morus alba In a four-year-old plantation subject to continuous cuttings every 90 days, a research was carried out in a radomized block design with 4 x 4 factorial arrangement and three repetitions, with the objective of quantifying the content of total flavonoids (Flav) in the leaves and fresh stems of four mulberry varieties. Flavs were found in the leaves ranging from 1,50 to 1,76% DM and in the fresh stems concentrations varied between 0,75 and 1,72% DM. A marked difference was observed between the rates of leaves and fresh stems, with a higher variability in the latter. Season showed a lower influence and no significant differences were observed, regarding concentration, among fertilization rates and varieties. Due to the few variations in Flav rates in the different varieties studied, these secondary metabolites may be considered chemotaxonomic markers of the species.
    27.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
17 Downloads
Available from
Sep 12, 2014