Electrochemical Disinfection, an Environmentally Acceptable Method of Drinking Water Disinfection?

Electrochimica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.5). 09/2005; 50(25):5270-5277. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.074


In general, chlorination is the method of drinking water disinfection most favoured by the water industry. Occasional outbreaks of water transmitted disease, the identification of chlorine as a source of potentially harmful disinfection by-products, and the emergence of recalcitrant pathogens has led to heightened regulation for the removal of microbial pathogens and disinfection by-products from drinking water. As a result, research and development of alternative disinfection technologies has intensified. Electrochemical disinfection has emerged as one of the more feasible alternatives to chlorination. Research using a range of cell configurations has shown electrochemical disinfection to be effective against a range of pathogens. However, in many of the systems, disinfection efficacy appears to be related to the generation of chlorine species. The apparent prevalence of chlorine as the mechanism of disinfection begs the question as to whether electrochemical disinfection has an advantage over chlorination in terms of its inactivation efficacy and potential to form disinfection by-products. This paper reports on a series of experiments evaluating the disinfection efficacy of an electrochemical disinfection technology against Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. The results of these experiments conclude that electrochemical disinfection can be effective without the generation of chlorine species.

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    • "potential applied for disinfection is lower than that required for free chlorine generation. Subsequent to this finding, electrochemical disinfection has been applied to various bacterial species and under various aqueous conditions using varied electrical potentials and materials [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. Our previous study revealed lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes of electrochemically inactivated bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenic viral infections are an international public health concern, and viral disinfection has received increasing attention. Electrochemical treatment has been used for treatment of water contaminated by bacteria for several decades, and although in recent years several reports have investigated viral inactivation kinetics, the mode of action of viral inactivation by electrochemical treatment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for human noroviruses, by electrochemical treatment in a developed flow-cell equipped with a screen-printed electrode. The viral infectivity titer was reduced by over 5 orders of magnitude after 15 min of treatment at 0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Proteomic study of electrochemically inactivated virus revealed oxidation of peptides located in the viral particles; oxidation was not observed in the non-treated sample. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed that viral particles in the treated sample had irregular structures. These results suggest that electrochemical treatment inactivates FCV via oxidation of peptides in the structural region, causing structural deformation of virus particles. This first report of viral protein damage through electrochemical treatment will contribute to broadening the understanding of viral inactivation mechanisms.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 10/2014; 283. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.09.049 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    • "On the other hand electrochemical generation of disinfectants, especially oxidants as HOCl, is an emerging technique [19] [20] [21]. In situ electrochemical generation of chlorine onboard would have many advantages like eliminating storage and handling of chlorine gas or HOCl solutions [22] [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the principle factors for displacement of the non-indigenous species among marine environments is Ships' ballast water. Even though only a very small portion of these organisms can survive the rough condition of ballast tanks, these survivors pose a big threat to the new environment they are introduced into. There are numerous proposed ballast water treatment techniques for eliminating diverse effects of ballast water translocation. Chlorine disinfection is one of the proposed chemical techniques for ballast water treatment. A lab-scale chlorine generation system for disinfecting ballast water organisms was used for testing and electrochemical cell design was proposed in our previous studies as well in this current study for artificial neural network applications. This study covers some of these experimental measurements and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applications as a non-linear statistical data modeling and a decision making tool. In this study, two different electro-chemical cell types are tested to determine the properties of the disinfectant produced under various conditions. These cells are designed to produce chlorine directly from seawater and to be used onboard for ballast water disin-fection. Two ANN models are utilized to find relationship between operational conditions and disinfectant quality parameters, i.e., total residual chlorine (TRC) and free available chlorine (FAC). The results which are presented with the ANN tool showed a very good correlation between input parameters and experimental results.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014; 23(12b):3353-3361. · 0.38 Impact Factor
    • "As a result of those disadvantages, a number of alternatives to chlorine for drinking water disinfection have been suggested. They can be of: (1) chemical nature such as ozonation; (2) physicochemical nature such as titanium photocatalysis, photodynamic disinfection and electrochemical disinfection ; (3) and physical such as ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric fields and irradiation magnetic enhanced disinfection (Kerwick et al. 2005). Apart from electrochemical disinfection, most of these systems are quite expensive and thus less convenient. "
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of electrochemical disinfection of artificial wastewater contaminated by Escherichia coli culture (5 × 105 UFC/100 mL) using electrocoagulation. In order to go deeply into the mechanism of the process, the behaviors of two dissolved-type electrodes (ordinary steel and aluminum) and a non-dissolved-type (carbon graphite) electrode were compared. The ordinary steel electrode was found more efficient for E. coli cells destruction compared to aluminum and carbon graphite electrodes. In order to determine the most favorable condition for the treatment, the effect of various supporting electrolytes including, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate, was scrutinized. E. coli is inactivated by 5 log units for a charge loading of 37.30 F/m3 for sodium sulfate, 24.87 F/m3 for sodium nitrate and 12.43 F/m3 for sodium chloride. It thus appears that the most favorable supporting electrolyte type for this method of disinfection is sodium chloride, a fact which can be explained by the formation of disinfectant by-products such as chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite ions and perchlorate ions. From the results obtained, electrocoagulation applied to the elimination of E. coli proceeds through three combined effects: the electric field, the actions of oxidants electrogenerated during the process and the adsorption by the metallic hydroxides formed in solution.
    International journal of Environmental Science and Technology 06/2014; 12(6). DOI:10.1007/s13762-014-0609-9 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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