Electrochemical disinfection, an environmentally acceptable method of drinking water disinfection?

Electrochimica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.5). 09/2005; 50(25):5270-5277. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.074

ABSTRACT In general, chlorination is the method of drinking water disinfection most favoured by the water industry. Occasional outbreaks of water transmitted disease, the identification of chlorine as a source of potentially harmful disinfection by-products, and the emergence of recalcitrant pathogens has led to heightened regulation for the removal of microbial pathogens and disinfection by-products from drinking water. As a result, research and development of alternative disinfection technologies has intensified. Electrochemical disinfection has emerged as one of the more feasible alternatives to chlorination. Research using a range of cell configurations has shown electrochemical disinfection to be effective against a range of pathogens. However, in many of the systems, disinfection efficacy appears to be related to the generation of chlorine species. The apparent prevalence of chlorine as the mechanism of disinfection begs the question as to whether electrochemical disinfection has an advantage over chlorination in terms of its inactivation efficacy and potential to form disinfection by-products. This paper reports on a series of experiments evaluating the disinfection efficacy of an electrochemical disinfection technology against Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. The results of these experiments conclude that electrochemical disinfection can be effective without the generation of chlorine species.

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    • "potential applied for disinfection is lower than that required for free chlorine generation. Subsequent to this finding, electrochemical disinfection has been applied to various bacterial species and under various aqueous conditions using varied electrical potentials and materials [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. Our previous study revealed lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes of electrochemically inactivated bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenic viral infections are an international public health concern, and viral disinfection has received increasing attention. Electrochemical treatment has been used for treatment of water contaminated by bacteria for several decades, and although in recent years several reports have investigated viral inactivation kinetics, the mode of action of viral inactivation by electrochemical treatment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for human noroviruses, by electrochemical treatment in a developed flow-cell equipped with a screen-printed electrode. The viral infectivity titer was reduced by over 5 orders of magnitude after 15 min of treatment at 0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Proteomic study of electrochemically inactivated virus revealed oxidation of peptides located in the viral particles; oxidation was not observed in the non-treated sample. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed that viral particles in the treated sample had irregular structures. These results suggest that electrochemical treatment inactivates FCV via oxidation of peptides in the structural region, causing structural deformation of virus particles. This first report of viral protein damage through electrochemical treatment will contribute to broadening the understanding of viral inactivation mechanisms.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 10/2014; 283. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.09.049 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    • "On the other hand electrochemical generation of disinfectants, especially oxidants as HOCl, is an emerging technique [19] [20] [21]. In situ electrochemical generation of chlorine onboard would have many advantages like eliminating storage and handling of chlorine gas or HOCl solutions [22] [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the principle factors for displacement of the non-indigenous species among marine environments is Ships' ballast water. Even though only a very small portion of these organisms can survive the rough condition of ballast tanks, these survivors pose a big threat to the new environment they are introduced into. There are numerous proposed ballast water treatment techniques for eliminating diverse effects of ballast water translocation. Chlorine disinfection is one of the proposed chemical techniques for ballast water treatment. A lab-scale chlorine generation system for disinfecting ballast water organisms was used for testing and electrochemical cell design was proposed in our previous studies as well in this current study for artificial neural network applications. This study covers some of these experimental measurements and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applications as a non-linear statistical data modeling and a decision making tool. In this study, two different electro-chemical cell types are tested to determine the properties of the disinfectant produced under various conditions. These cells are designed to produce chlorine directly from seawater and to be used onboard for ballast water disin-fection. Two ANN models are utilized to find relationship between operational conditions and disinfectant quality parameters, i.e., total residual chlorine (TRC) and free available chlorine (FAC). The results which are presented with the ANN tool showed a very good correlation between input parameters and experimental results.
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 06/2014; 23(12b):3353-3361. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The configuration with parallel-plate electrodes was also considered as an appropriate geometry for electrochemical water disinfection. Thus, the Zappi TM electrochemical cell [8], consisting of two platinum clad niobium mesh anodes and two steel cathodes in an open configuration, was used to evaluate the efficacy of an electrochemical disinfection technology. Likewise, the performance of the commercial filter-press reactor, EC Electro MP- Cell, in a single compartment with two electrodes was analyzed using as anode either a boron-doped diamond electrode or a DSA and stainless steel as cathode [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A reactor was built, experimentally studied and modelled having six bipolar electrodes placed between the terminal ones, all of them were RuO2/IrO2 on a Ti sheet. The interelectrode gap was 1.5 mm. Plastic plates were optionally arranged in the inlet and outlet to the electrodes to produce entrance or exit regions. The Laplace equation was numerically solved for the solution phase to obtain the current and potential distribution. The calculations performed without entrance and exit regions show that the current distribution is pronounced at the thickness of the electrodes and at the electrode edges. The presence of the entrance and exit regions covers the electrode thickness, increases the current distribution and diminishes the leakage current. The hydrodynamics of the reactor was analyzed by the stimulus–response method and the best behaviour was obtained when the equipment was filled with glass beads. This reactor was tested analyzing the in-line production of sodium hypochlorite from drinking wat
    Chemical Engineering and Processing 03/2013; 65:45-52. DOI:10.1016/j.cep.2012.12.007 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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