Electrochemical disinfection, an environmentally acceptable method of drinking water disinfection?

Electrochimica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.09). 09/2005; 50:5270-5277. DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.074

ABSTRACT In general, chlorination is the method of drinking water disinfection most favoured by the water industry. Occasional outbreaks of water transmitted disease, the identification of chlorine as a source of potentially harmful disinfection by-products, and the emergence of recalcitrant pathogens has led to heightened regulation for the removal of microbial pathogens and disinfection by-products from drinking water. As a result, research and development of alternative disinfection technologies has intensified. Electrochemical disinfection has emerged as one of the more feasible alternatives to chlorination. Research using a range of cell configurations has shown electrochemical disinfection to be effective against a range of pathogens. However, in many of the systems, disinfection efficacy appears to be related to the generation of chlorine species. The apparent prevalence of chlorine as the mechanism of disinfection begs the question as to whether electrochemical disinfection has an advantage over chlorination in terms of its inactivation efficacy and potential to form disinfection by-products. This paper reports on a series of experiments evaluating the disinfection efficacy of an electrochemical disinfection technology against Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. The results of these experiments conclude that electrochemical disinfection can be effective without the generation of chlorine species.

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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenic viral infections are an international public health concern, and viral disinfection has received increasing attention. Electrochemical treatment has been used for treatment of water contaminated by bacteria for several decades, and although in recent years several reports have investigated viral inactivation kinetics, the mode of action of viral inactivation by electrochemical treatment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for human noroviruses, by electrochemical treatment in a developed flow-cell equipped with a screen-printed electrode. The viral infectivity titer was reduced by over 5 orders of magnitude after 15 min of treatment at 0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Proteomic study of electrochemically inactivated virus revealed oxidation of peptides located in the viral particles; oxidation was not observed in the non-treated sample. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed that viral particles in the treated sample had irregular structures. These results suggest that electrochemical treatment inactivates FCV via oxidation of peptides in the structural region, causing structural deformation of virus particles. This first report of viral protein damage through electrochemical treatment will contribute to broadening the understanding of viral inactivation mechanisms.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 10/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water disinfection with electrolysis is an alternative for water treatment, which is receiving increasing attention from drinking and industrial water producers. With this approach oxidants are produced from electrolysis of water molecule and some of dissolved chemical compounds. To carry out the process of electrolysis the using of Ti n O 2n-1 containing ceramic electrodes is possible. The obtained electrodes were used to form electrolytic cell. The total electrolysis cell resistance decreases if the current density applied to the electrolysis cell is increased. During electrolysis at constant current strength, the amount of chlorine, which is delivered in the process of electrolysis, was not dependent on the electrode surface. The technological parameters of process (flow rate, current intensity) have been established to obtain predetermined amount of released chlorine during electrolysis process. The specific work of electric current to release chlorine is decreased, if electrode surface area was increased and current intensity remains constant; but increased, if current density remained constant.
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    ABSTRACT: The study of the Escherichia coli inactivation kinetics in synthetic waters using BDD electrochemical oxidation is considered in this work. Synthetic waters, obtained by E-coli inoculation from CECT 516 Acticult 3R are used in laboratory experiments carried out by means of a 2 monopolar BDD/Si electrodes, 12.5 cm 2 surface area cell provided by Adamant Technologies. The main objective in this work is the determination of the influence of operation variables, such as NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 and NaNO 3 as electrolytes, current intensity and initial concentration of E-coli in the synthetic waters in the disinfection kinetics. The formation Trihalometanes (THMs) as disinfection by-products (DBP) like is also considered in the study.


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