Article

Transnational municipal networks in climate politics: from global governance to global politics

Globalizations (Impact Factor: 0.47). 01/2008; 5:341-356. DOI: 10.1080/14747730802252479

ABSTRACT In a multilevel and multicentric governance arena, pathways and mechanisms of influence are several and non-state capacities for technical leadership and norm entrepreneurship prove more significant than is the case within a strictly multilateral framework. Among actors with such capacities are municipalities, which multiply their influence through horizontal and vertical relationships. Transnational municipal networks present opportunities for both intermunicipal dialogue and the pooling of global influence, highlighting the presence and influence of the city in the world. This paper examines the collective response of some cities to climate change, exploring the place of cities in global environmental politics through analysis of two transnational municipal networks: the International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives' Cities for Climate Protection and the International Solar Cities Initiative. The article addresses the following questions: How might municipal efforts toward a climate-stable future be significant to the larger issue of ecological justice in global environmental politics? Might cities be able to redefine the rules of the game and take a stand on 'inefficient' norms? After briefly accounting for the relationship between cities and the world, the article characterizes technical leadership as a legitimizing force of and in global environmental governance and norm entrepreneurship as a potential source of contestation and subversion in global environmental politics. The paper describes what cities are globalizing, in terms of pollution, environmental degradation, and risk, and in terms of management and politics. Finally, the article explores the possibility that emerging horizontal and vertical relationships, intermunicipal relationships, and relationships between cities or networks of cities and other scales of governance potentiate legitimizing roles for cities in climate governance and subversive roles in climate politics. En un ámbito de gobierno multinivel y multicéntrico, son varias las trayectorias y los mecanismos de influencia y las capacidades no estatales para el liderazgo y la norma empresarial resultan ser más significativas que en el caso de un marco estrictamente multilateral. Entre los actores de tales capacidades se encuentran los municipios, los cuales multiplican su influencia a través de relaciones horizontales y verticales. Las redes municipales trasnacionales presentan oportunidades al diálogo intermunicipal y al fondo común de influencia global, destacando la presencia e influencia de la ciudad en el mundo. Este artículo examina la respuesta colectiva de algunas ciudades al cambio del clima, analizando el lugar que le corresponde a las ciudades dentro de la política global del medio ambiente, a través del análisis de dos redes municipales trasnacionales: El Consejo Internacional de Ciudades con Iniciativas Locales para la Protección del Clima y la Iniciativa Solar de Ciudades Internacionales. El artículo aborda las siguientes cuestiones: ¿De qué manera los esfuerzos del poder municipal con miras hacia un futuro de estabilidad del clima, pueden ser significativos con relación a la cuestión más amplia de justicia ecológica dentro de la política global del medio ambiente? ¿Tendrían las ciudades la capacidad de redefinir las reglas del juego y adoptar una postura firme ante las normas 'ineficaces'? Después de explicar brevemente la relación entre las ciudades y el mundo, el artículo caracteriza al liderazgo técnico como una fuerza legitimizadora dentro de la autoridad global del medio ambiente y la norma empresarial, y como fuente potencial de protesta y subversión en la política global del medio ambiente. El documento describe qué ciudades se están globalizando, en términos de contaminación, degradación del medio ambiente y el riesgo y en términos de administración y política. Finalmente, el artículo analiza la posibilidad de que las relaciones horizontales y verticales, intermunicipales y entre ciudades o redes de ciudades y otras escalas de gobierno incipientes, aumentan el efecto de legitimar las funciones a las ciudades dentro del clima gubernamental y las funciones subversivas dentro del clima político.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This contribution focuses on the role and promise of municipal-government climate-stabilization policies in the world's two largest greenhouse gases (GHG)-emitting nations. The article compares emission-mitigation authority, drivers, barriers, and activities at the city level in China and the United States. Recent municipal policy initiatives are analyzed within a policy context of climate-driven and climate-incidental municipal framings. For the most part, United States and Chinese cities have not yet adopted policy strategies that are intended to address GHG emissions directly and have not provided normative leadership in the interest of ecological justice. In both countries, however, increasingly independent and networked municipal governments are linking a diverse set of activities that focus on air-quality, health-promotion, and economic security to emissions reduction. These climate-incidental municipal policies establish commitments that are beginning to exert an important global environmental impact. Although noteworthy and exemplary in a political context of national resistance to emission mandates, in the absence of a coordinated and strategically framed commitment among cities across both countries and/or policies and targets agreed upon at national and international levels that generate and reinforce local government initiatives, fragmented, uneven, and incomplete municipal-government actions will continue to exert limited measurable and normative impact on global GHG emissions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 04/2010; 1(3):405 - 417.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The adverse health effects from hot weather and heat waves represent significant public health risks in vulnerable areas worldwide. Rising temperatures due to climate change are aggravating these risks in a context of fast urbanization, population growth and societal ageing. However, environmental heat-related health effects are largely preventable through adequate preparedness and responses. Public health adaptation to climate change will often require the implementation of heat wave warning systems and targeted preventive activities at different levels. While several national governments have established such systems at the country level, municipalities do not generally play a major role in the prevention of heat disorders. This paper analyzes selected examples of locally operated heat-health prevention plans in Japan. The analysis of these plans highlights their strengths, but also the need of local institutions for assistance to make the transition towards an effective public health management of high temperatures and heat waves. It can also provide useful elements for municipal governments in vulnerable areas, both in planning their climate change and health adaptation activities or to better protect their communities against current health effects from heat.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12/2011; 8(12):4563-81. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article broadens the discussion of cities as strategic sites in which global activities are organized. It deploys methodology commonly used to study the distribution and disproportionate concentration of advanced producer and financial services firms in order to study the office distribution of global nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and global energy corporations. It then compares the distribution of those offices to that of advanced producer and financial services firms, using data from the global and World Cities Research Network, further discovering what cities are strategic sites in all three networks, in any combination of two networks, and in only one network. Attending to the convergence and divergence of such networks opens a door to the study of network logic—the underlying dynamics of network functioning—instead of limiting the study to network structure or composition while also permitting a multi-sectoral measurement of globality.Este artículo amplía la discusión de ciudades como lugares estratégicos en las que se organizan actividades globales. Despliega una metodología comúnmente usada para estudiar la distribución y la concentración desproporcionada de productores avanzados y firmas de servicios financieros, con el objeto de estudiar la distribución de oficinas de las organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONGs) y las corporaciones de energía globales. Luego compara la distribución de aquellas oficinas para los productores avanzados y para las firmas de servicios financieros, usando los datos de la Red de Investigación de las Ciudades Mundiales y Globales, para luego descubrir qué ciudades son lugares estratégicos en todas las tres redes, en cualquier combinación de dos redes y en solo una red. Prestando atención a la convergencia y divergencia de tales redes, se abre una puerta al estudio de la lógica de las redes—la dinámica subyacente de la función de las redes—en vez de limitar el estudio de la estructura de la red o la composición, permitiendo también una medida multisectorial de globalidad.本文扩展了对城市的讨论,它们是组织全球行动的战略要地。本文运用了通常研究高级生产者和金融服务公司的分布及其不成比例集中问题的方法学,以期对全球非政府组织和全球能源公司的办公分布进行研究。然后,它运用来自“全球与世界城市研究网络”的数据,通过进一步讨论何种城市属于全部三种网络的、任何两种网络结合的、以及仅一种网络中的战略要地,对其机构分布和高级生产者及金融服务公司的分布进行对比。对这些网络的聚集和离散的注意为网络逻辑——网络运作的潜在动力——的研究提供了机会,而不是在允许对全球性进行多领域量度的同时又局限于研究网络的结构或组成。이 논문은 도시에 관한 논의를 지구적 활동이 조직되는 전략적 장소로 확대시킨다. 이 글은글로벌 NGO와 글로벌 에너지 기업의 사무실 분포를 연구하기 위하여 첨단 제조업체와 금융서비스 회사의 분포와 집중을 연구하는데 공통적으로 사용되는 방법을 적용한다. 그 다음 글로벌 및 세계 도시 연구 네트워크(Global and World Cities Research Network) 자료를 이용하여, 글로벌 NGO와 글로벌 에너지 기업 사무실의 분포와 첨단 제조업체와 금융서비스 회사의 분포를 비교한다. 그것을 통하여 세 가지 네트워크에서, 두 가지 네트워크의 결합에서 그리고 단지 한 가지 네트워크에서 어떤 도시가 전략도시인지를 찾아 내고자 한다. 이러한 네트워크의 수렴과 분화를 보는 것은 네트워크 구조나 네트워크 기능에 연구를 제한시키는 것이 아니라 여러 부문에서 글로벌성(globality) 측정을 가능케 하여 네트워크 기능의 근저에서 작동하는 네트워크 논리에 대한 연구의 길을 열어 준다.
    Globalizations 01/2012; 9(2):289-306. · 0.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
13 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014