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Scenarios of world anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane up to 2030

07/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: The Mitigation Efforts Calculator (MEC) has been developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) as an online tool to compare greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation proposals by various countries for the year 2020. In this paper, first we introduce the MEC conceptual model, i.e. the methodology and system architecture. We then discuss the abstract formulation of four different international greenhouse gas trading regimes that are conceivable. Hereafter, the optimization process and its output results, namely cost curves are presented. Finally, we illustrate the MEC as a tool for interactively evaluating complex cost curve information in the context of GHG mitigation targets as currently discussed in international climate policy circles.
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    Air pollution: deposition to and impacts on vegetation in (South-)East Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia (EECCA/SEE) and South-East Asia, Edited by Harry Harmens and Gina Mills, 03/2014: chapter Russian Federation Country Report: pages 65-67; Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,Bangor, UK., ISBN: 978-1-906698-48-5
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    ABSTRACT: Increased ratification of the Protocols of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) was identified as a high priority in the new long-term strategy of the Convention. Increased ratification and full implementation of air pollution abatement policies is particularly desirable for countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and South-Eastern Europe (SEE). Hence, scientific activities within the Convention will need to involve these countries. In the current report, the ICP Vegetation has reviewed current knowledge on the deposition of air pollutants to and their impacts on vegetation in EECCA (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) and SEE countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey). As an outreach activity to Asia we have also reviewed current knowledge on this subject for the Malé Declaration countries in South-East Asia (SEA; Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Air pollution is a main concern in Asia due to enhanced industrialisation, which is directly linked to continued strong economic growth in recent decades. In these regions, there is generally a lack of an extensive network of monitoring stations to assess the magnitude of air concentrations and depositions of pollutants. In addition, emission inventories are often incomplete or not reported at all for some pollutants, which makes it difficult to validate atmospheric transport models for these regions. Furthermore, there is often a lack of coordinated monitoring networks to assess the impacts of air pollution on vegetation. Hence, the risk of adverse impacts on vegetation often has to be assessed using atmospheric transport models in conjunction with metrics developed to compute the risk of air pollution impacts on vegetation, such as critical loads and levels. Here we have focussed on the following air pollutants: nitrogen, ozone, heavy metals, POPs (EECCA/SEE countries) and aerosols, including black carbon as a component (South-East Asia).

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