Download full-text


Available from: Reinhard Mechler, Oct 10, 2015
103 Reads
  • Source
    • "% , respectively ( Fig . 3 ) . The world emissions of SO 2 were about 122 million tonne in 1990 and about 97 million tonne in 2001 , and 85 million tonne in 2010 , which was mainly due to strict controls implemented in Western Europe , and also due to economic restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe and in Russia and Newly Independent States ( Cofala et al . , 2006 , Table 4 Emission factor by energy source ( Tonooka et al . , 2003 ) ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main GHGs (CO2, NOx, and SO2) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO2 emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO2 and NOx emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO2. Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO2, NOx, and SO2 by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment.
    Environmental Pollution 05/2013; 179C:250-257. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.022 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Aerosol emissions, based on the AEROCOM emission inventory (Dentener et al., 2006) of the year 2000, combined with regional emission inventories available over India (Reddy and Venkataraman, 2002; Venkataraman et al., 2005, 2006) were used for biofuel, fossil fuel, industry and wild fire emission categories. SO 2 emissions include volcanoes (Andres and Kasgnoc, 1998), vegetation fires, industry, fossil fuel and biofuel (Cofala et al., 2005). In this study, fossil fuel emissions over the Indian region were projected from base year 1999 (Reddy and Venkataraman, 2002) to the year 2006 using International Energy Agency (IEA) fuel consumption data. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we analyse aerosol loading and its direct radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and Arabian Sea (AS) regions for the Integrated Campaign on Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) undertaken during 2006, using satellite data from the MODerate Res-olution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, the Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite, and the European-Community Hamburg (ECHAM5.5) gen-eral circulation model extended by Hamburg Aerosol Mod-ule (HAM). By statistically comparing with large-scale satel-lite data sets, we firstly show that the aerosol properties mea-sured during the ship-based ICARB campaign and simulated by the model are representative for the BoB and AS regions and the pre-monsoon season. In a second step, the mod-elled aerosol distributions were evaluated by a comparison with the measurements from the ship-based sunphotometer, and the satellite retrievals during ICARB. It is found that the model broadly reproduces the observed spatial and tempo-ral variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over BoB and AS regions. However, AOD was systematically underesti-mated during high-pollution episodes, especially in the BoB leg. We show that this underprediction of AOD is mostly be-cause of the deficiencies in the coarse mode, where the model shows that dust is the dominant component. The analysis of dust AOD along with the OMI Aerosol Index indicate that missing dust transport that results from too low dust emis-sion fluxes over the Thar Desert region in the model caused this deficiency. Thirdly, we analysed the spatio-temporal variability of AOD comparing the ship-based observations to the large-scale satellite observations and simulations. It was found that most of the variability along the track was from geographical patterns, with a minor influence by single events. Aerosol fields were homogeneous enough to yield a good statistical agreement between satellite data at a 1 • spa-tial, but only twice-daily temporal resolution, and the ship-based sunphotometer data at a much finer spatial, but daily-average temporal resolution. Examination of the satellite data further showed that the year 2006 is representative for the five-year period for which satellite data were available. Finally, we estimated the clear-sky solar direct aerosol ra-diative forcing (DARF). We found that the cruise represents well the regional-seasonal mean forcings. Constraining sim-ulated forcings using the observed AOD distributions yields a robust estimate of regional-seasonal mean DARF of −8.6, −21.4 and +12.9 W m −2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SUR) and in the atmosphere (ATM), respec-tively, for the BoB region, and over the AS, of, −6.8, −12.8, and +6 W m −2 at TOA, SUR, and ATM, respectively.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 02/2012; 12(3):1287-1305. DOI:10.5194/acpd-11-13911-2011 · 5.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The anthropogenic and fire aerosol emissions are based on the AEROCOM emission inventory [Dentener et al., 2006] representative of the year 2000. SO 2 emissions include volcanoes [Andres and Kasgnoc, 1998; Halmer et al., 2002], vegetation fires [van der Werf et al., 2003], industry, fossil fuel and biofuel [Cofala et al., 2005]. Except DMS, 97.5% of all sulfuric emissions are in the form of SO 2 and 2.5% in the form of primary sulfate particles. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We use the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ aerosol-chemistry-climate model to quantify the influence of trace gas–aerosol interactions on the regional and global distributions and optical properties of aerosols for present-day conditions. The model includes fully interactive simulations of gas phase and aerosol chemistry including a comprehensive set of heterogeneous reactions. We find that as a whole, the heterogeneous reactions have only a small effect on the $ {SO}_{2}$ and sulfate burden because of competing effects. The uptake of $ {SO}_{2}$ on dust and sea salt decreases the $ {SO}_{2}$ concentrations while the decrease in OH (that results from the uptake of ($ {HO}_{2}$, $ {N}_{2}{O}_{5}$, and $ {O}_{3}$) tends to increase $ {SO}_{2}$ (because of reduced oxidation). The sulfate formed in sea salt aerosols from $ {SO}_{2}$ uptake accounts for 3.7 Tg(S) a−1 (5%) of the total sulfate production. Uptake and subsequent reaction of SO2 on mineral dust contributes to a small formation of sulfate (0.55 Tg(S) a−1, <1%), but is responsible for the coating of mineral dust particles, resulting in an extra 300 Tg a−1 of dust being transferred from the insoluble to the soluble mixed modes. The burden of dust in the insoluble modes is reduced by 44%, while the total burden is reduced by 5% as a result of enhanced wet deposition efficiency. Changes in the sulfur cycle affect the H2SO4 concentrations and the condensation of H2SO4 on black carbon. Accounting for heterogeneous reactions enhances the global mean burden of hydrophobic black carbon particles by 4%. The changes in aerosol mixing state result only in a small change in the global and annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption optical depth (ABS), but have significant implications on regional and seasonal scale. For example, in the main polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, AOD and ABS increase by 10–30% and up to 15%, respectively, in winter.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 04/2008; 113(D7). DOI:10.1029/2007JD009008 · 3.43 Impact Factor
Show more