Rab27 effector Slp2-a transports the apical signaling molecule podocalyxin to the apical surface of MDCK II cells and regulates claudin-2 expression.
ABSTRACT Most cells in tissues are polarized and usually have two distinct plasma membrane domains-an apical membrane and a basolateral membrane, which are the result of polarized trafficking of proteins and lipids. However, the mechanism underlying the cell polarization is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the involvement of synaptotagmin-like protein 2-a (Slp2-a), an effector molecule for the small GTPase Rab27, in polarized trafficking by using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells as a model of polarized cells. The results show that the level of Slp2-a expression in MDCK II cells increases greatly as the cells become polarized and that its expression is specifically localized at the apical membrane. The results also reveal that Slp2-a is required for targeting of the signaling molecule podocalyxin to the apical membrane in a Rab27A-dependent manner. In addition, ezrin, a downstream target of podocalyxin, and ERK1/2 are activated in Slp2-a-knockdown cells, and their activation results in a dramatic reduction in the amount of the tight junction protein claudin-2. Because both Slp2-a and claudin-2 are highly expressed in mouse renal proximal tubules, Slp2-a is likely to regulate claudin-2 expression through trafficking of podocalyxin to the apical surface in mouse renal tubule epithelial cells.
Article: The glomerular epithelial cell anti-adhesin podocalyxin associates with the actin cytoskeleton through interactions with ezrin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During development, renal glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) undergo extensive morphologic changes necessary for creation of the glomerular filtration apparatus. These changes include formation of interdigitating foot processes, replacement of tight junctions with slit diaphragms, and the concomitant opening of intercellular urinary spaces. It was postulated previously and confirmed recently that podocalyxin, a sialomucin, plays a major role in maintaining the urinary space open by virtue of the physicochemical properties of its highly negatively charged ectodomain. This study examined whether the highly conserved cytoplasmic tail of podocalyxin also contributes to the unique organization of podocytes by interacting with the cytoskeletal network found in their cell bodies and foot processes. By immunocytochemistry, it was shown that podocalyxin and the actin binding protein ezrin are co-expressed in podocytes and co-localize along the apical plasma membrane, where they form a co-immunoprecipitable complex. Selective detergent extraction followed by differential centrifugation revealed that some of the podocalyxin cosediments with actin filaments. Moreover, its sedimentation is dependent on polymerized actin and is mediated by complex formation with ezrin. Once formed, podocalyxin/ezrin complexes are very stable, because they are insensitive to actin depolymerization or inactivation of Rho kinase, which is known to be necessary for regulation of ezrin and to mediate Rho-dependent actin organization. These data indicate that in podocytes, podocalyxin is complexed with ezrin, which mediates its link to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, in addition to its ectodomain, the cytoplasmic tail of podocalyxin also likely contributes to maintaining the unique podocyte morphology.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2001; 12(8):1589-98. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Mutation of position 52 in ERK2 creates a nonproductive binding mode for adenosine 5'-triphosphate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among the protein kinases, an absolutely conserved lysine in subdomain II is required for high catalytic activity. This lysine is known to interact with the substrate ATP, but otherwise its role is not well understood. We have used biochemical and structural methods to investigate the function of this lysine (K52) in phosphoryl transfer reactions catalyzed by the MAP kinase ERK2. The kinetic properties of activated wild-type ERK2 and K52 mutants were examined using the oncoprotein TAL2, myelin basic protein, and a designed synthetic peptide as substrates. The catalytic activities of K52R and K52A ERK2 were lower than that of wild-type ERK2, primarily as a consequence of reductions in kcat. Further, there was little difference in Km for ATP, but the Km,app for peptide substrate was higher for the K52 mutants. The three-dimensional structure of unphosphorylated K52R ERK2 in the absence and presence of bound ATP was determined and compared with the structure of unphosphorylated wild-type ERK2. ATP adopted a well-defined but distinct binding mode in K52R ERK2 compared to the binding mode in the wild-type enzyme. The structural and kinetic data show that mutation of K52 created a nonproductive binding mode for ATP and suggest that K52 is essential for orienting ATP for catalysis.Biochemistry 06/1996; 35(18):5641-6. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Conserved N-terminal cysteine motif is essential for homo- and heterodimer formation of synaptotagmins III, V, VI, and X.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synaptotagmins now constitute a large family of membrane proteins characterized by one transmembrane region and two C2 domains. Dimerization of synaptotagmin (Syt) I, a putative low affinity Ca(2+) sensor for neurotransmitter release, is thought to be important for expression of function during exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. However, little is known about the self-dimerization properties of other isoforms. In this study, we demonstrate that a subclass of synaptotagmins (III, V, VI, and X) (Ibata, K., Fukuda, M., and Mikoshiba, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 12267-12273) forms beta-mercaptoethanol-sensitive homodimers and identify three evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues at the N terminus (N-terminal cysteine motif, at amino acids 10, 21, and 33 of mouse Syt III) that are not conserved in other isoforms. Site-directed mutagenesis of these cysteine residues and co-immunoprecipitation experiments clearly indicate that the first cysteine residue is essential for the stable homodimer formation of Syt III, V, or VI, and heterodimer formation between Syts III, V, VI, and X. We also show that native Syt III from mouse brain forms a beta-mercaptoethanol-sensitive homodimer. Our results suggest that the cysteine-based heterodimerization between Syt III and Syt V, VI, or X, which have different biochemical properties, may modulate the proposed function of Syt III as a putative high affinity Ca(2+) sensor for neurotransmitter release.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(44):31421-7. · 4.77 Impact Factor