Syntaxin-11, but not syntaxin-2 or syntaxin-4, is required for platelet secretion.
ABSTRACT The platelet release reaction plays a critical role in thrombosis and contributes to the events that follow hemostasis. Previous studies have shown that platelet secretion is mediated by Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE) proteins from granule and plasma membranes. The SNAREs form transmembrane complexes that mediate membrane fusion and granule cargo release. Although VAMP-8 (v-SNARE) and SNAP-23 (a t-SNARE class) are important for platelet secretion, the identity of the functional syntaxin (another t-SNARE class) has been controversial. Previous studies using anti-syntaxin Abs in permeabilized platelets have suggested roles for both syntaxin-2 and syntaxin-4. In the present study, we tested these conclusions using platelets from syntaxin-knockout mouse strains and from a Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis type 4 (FHL4) patient. Platelets from syntaxin-2 and syntaxin-4 single- or double-knockout mice had no secretion defect. Platelets from a FHL4 patient deficient in syntaxin-11 had a robust defect in agonist-induced secretion although their morphology, activation, and cargo levels appeared normal. Semiquantitative Western blotting showed that syntaxin-11 is the more abundant syntaxin in both human and murine platelets. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that syntaxin-11 can form SNARE complexes with both VAMP-8 and SNAP-23. The results of the present study indicate that syntaxin-11, but not syntaxin-2 or syntaxin-4, is required for platelet exocytosis.
- SourceAvailable from: Ewelina M Golebiewska[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upon activation, platelets secrete more than 300 active substances from their intracellular granules. Platelet dense granule components, such as ADP and polyphosphates, contribute to haemostasis and coagulation, but also play a role in cancer metastasis. α-Granules contain multiple cytokines, mitogens, pro- and anti-inflammatory factors and other bioactive molecules that are essential regulators in the complex microenvironment of the growing thrombus but also contribute to a number of disease processes. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of secretion and the genetic regulation of granule biogenesis still remains incomplete. In this review we summarise our current understanding of the roles of platelet secretion in health and disease, and discuss some of the hypotheses that may explain how platelets may control the release of its many secreted components in a context-specific manner, to allow platelets to play multiple roles in health and disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Blood Reviews 10/2014; · 5.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked genes encoding several soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) regulators to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because these regulatory proteins may directly affect platelet secretion, we used SNARE-containing complexes to affinity purify potential regulators from human platelet extracts. Syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5; also known as tomosyn-1) was identified by mass spectrometry, and its expression in isolated platelets was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that STXBP5 interacts with core secretion machinery complexes, such as syntaxin-11/SNAP23 heterodimers, and fractionation studies suggested that STXBP5 also interacts with the platelet cytoskeleton. Platelets from Stxbp5 KO mice had normal expression of other key secretory components; however, stimulation-dependent secretion from each of the 3 granule types was markedly defective. Secretion defects in STXBP5-deficient platelets were confirmed via lumi-aggregometry and FACS analysis for P-selectin and LAMP-1 exposure. Interestingly, STXBP5-deficient platelets had altered granule cargo levels, despite having normal morphology and granule numbers. Consistent with secretion and cargo deficiencies, Stxbp5 KO mice showed dramatic bleeding in the tail transection model and defective hemostasis in the FeCl3-induced carotid injury model. Transplantation experiments indicated that these defects were due to loss of STXBP5 in BM-derived cells. Our data demonstrate that STXBP5 is required for normal arterial hemostasis, due to its contributions to platelet granule cargo packaging and secretion.Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2014; · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Platelet secretion not only drives thrombosis and hemostasis, but also mediates a variety of other physiological and pathological processes. The ubiquitous SNARE machinery and a number of accessory proteins have been implicated in regulating secretion in platelets. Although several platelets SNAREs have been identified, further members of the SNARE family may be needed to fine-tune platelet secretion. In this study we identified expression of the t-SNARE syntaxin 8 (STX8) (Qc SNARE) in mouse and human platelets. In mouse studies, whereas STX8 was not essential for α-granule or lysosome secretion, Stx8-/- platelets showed a significant defect in dense granule secretion in response to thrombin and CRP. This was most pronounced at intermediate concentrations of agonists. They also showed an aggregation defect that could be rescued with exogenous ADP and increased embolization in Stx8-/- mice in vivo consistent with an important autocrine and paracrine role for ADP in aggregation and thrombus stabilization. STX8 therefore specifically contributes to dense granule secretion and represents another member of a growing family of genes that play distinct roles in regulating granule release from platelets and thus platelet function in thrombosis and hemostasis. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor