Article

Organic and inorganic selenium: III. Ewe and progeny performance

Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, College of Agriculture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 1.92). 07/2012; 90(12). DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-5019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in sheep and deficiency can limit lamb growth and survival. To evaluate how different chemical forms of Se administered to mature ewes at comparative dosages affect ewe and progeny performance, 240 ewes were divided into 8 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se; at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk); with inorganic Na-selenate (8.95 mg Se/wk); or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk). The treatment period started approximately 2 wk before breeding and lasted for 62.5 wk. Ewes of the no Se and Se-yeast groups continued treatments for another 21 to 24 wk through a second lambing season. Chemical form or dosage of Se did not affect ewe reproductive performance based on proportion of ewes lambing in each treatment group, or number of lambs born, nursed, or weaned per ewe (all P > 0.10). Ewes receiving the highest supplementation rate of Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk had higher BCS (scale 1 to 5) at the end of yr 1 (2.95 vs. 2.66; P = 0.05) than ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk. Performance was better in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk than in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk or no Se. In yr 1, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 vs 4.9 mg Se/wk were heavier at 120 d of age (37.0 vs. 34.2 kg; P = 0.05). In yr 2, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk were or tended to be heavier at 60 d of age than lambs from ewes receiving no Se (21.2 vs. 19.0 kg; P = 0.04) or lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (19.2 kg; P = 0.09). This effect was more pronounced in ewes raising multiple lambs. We conclude that supranutritional supplementation of ewes with Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk improves lamb growth and ewe health without negatively affecting reproductive performance.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jean Hall, May 14, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
69 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for ruminant animals affecting both performance and immune functions. Adding 3 mg of Se/L (in the form of Na selenite) to colostrum has been shown to improve IgG absorption in Se-deficient newborn dairy calves. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation on IgG status of Se-replete dairy calves. The study design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. During the last 8 wk before calving, dairy cows at a commercial dairy were fed either 0 (control cows) or 105 mg of Se-yeast once weekly (supranutritional Se-yeast-supplemented cows), in addition to Na selenite at 0.3 mg of Se/kg of DM in their ration. After birth, calves were fed pooled colostrum from control or supranutritional Se-yeast-supplemented cows to which 0 or 3 mg of Se/L (in the form of Na selenite) was added. Concentrations of whole-blood (WB) Se and serum Se measured at birth and at 48 h and 14 d of age, and serum IgG concentrations measured at 48 h and 14 and 60 d of age were determined. Calves born to Se-yeast-supplemented cows had higher WB-Se and serum-Se concentrations for the first 2 wk, and higher IgG absorption efficiency (62% at 48 h), resulting in higher serum-IgG concentrations (43% at 48 h and 65% at 14 d) and higher total serum-IgG content (50% at 48 h and 75% at 14 d), compared with calves born to control cows. Calves that received colostrum with added Na selenite had higher WB-Se concentrations for the first 2 wk, but only at 14 d of age were serum-Se concentrations, serum-IgG concentrations (53% higher), and total serum-IgG content (56% higher) higher, compared with calves that were fed colostrum without added Na selenite. Calves born to Se-yeast-supplemented cows that received colostrum from Se-yeast cows without added Na selenite had a higher IgG absorption efficiency compared with all other treatment groups. Our results suggest that feeding cows supranutritional Se-yeast supplement during the dry period or spiking colostrum with Na selenite both improve IgG status of Se-replete calves.
    Journal of Dairy Science 04/2014; 97(7). DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-7481
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Newborn lambs depend upon their dams for passive transfer of immunoglobulins, primarily IgG, for protection from harmful pathogens until their own immunological defenses have developed. Previous studies have suggested that supplementation with selenium (Se) results in a modest increase in IgG concentration in serum of newborn calves and lambs. To evaluate the effect of Se source and supplementation rate in ewes during pregnancy on passive transfer of IgG to their lambs, 210 Polypay, Suffolk, or Suffolk by Polypay cross ewes were divided into 7 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se; at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk); or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk). Ewe-serum IgG concentrations were measured within 30 d of parturition, ewe-colostrum and lamb-serum IgG concentrations were measured at parturition before suckling, and lamb-serum IgG concentrations were measured again at 48 h postnatal. Ewes receiving 24.5 mg Se/wk tended to have or had, independent of Se source, greater colostral-IgG concentrations than ewes receiving 4.9 mg Se/wk overall (81.3 vs. 66.2 mg/mL; P = 0.08) and for Polypay ewes only (90.1 vs. 60.7 mg/mL; P = 0.03), respectively. Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk transferred a greater calculated total IgG amount to their lambs than Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (15.5 vs. 11.6 g; P = 0.02), while the converse was true (interaction between Se source and dose concentration; P = 0.03) for Polypay ewes receiving inorganic Na-selenite at 24.5 mg Se/wk vs. Na-selenite at 4.9 mg/wk (11.6 vs. 15.7 g; P = 0.08). Our results suggest that supranutritional Se supplementation of Polypay ewes during pregnancy increases colostral IgG concentrations, but that the optimal supplementation rate for IgG transfer from ewe to lamb may differ for Na-selenite and Se-yeast.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2013; 91(4). DOI:10.2527/jas.2012-5377
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001) and body weights (P Linear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58188. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058188