Organic and inorganic selenium: III. Ewe and progeny performance
ABSTRACT Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in sheep and deficiency can limit lamb growth and survival. To evaluate how different chemical forms of Se administered to mature ewes at comparative dosages affect ewe and progeny performance, 240 ewes were divided into 8 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se; at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk); with inorganic Na-selenate (8.95 mg Se/wk); or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk). The treatment period started approximately 2 wk before breeding and lasted for 62.5 wk. Ewes of the no Se and Se-yeast groups continued treatments for another 21 to 24 wk through a second lambing season. Chemical form or dosage of Se did not affect ewe reproductive performance based on proportion of ewes lambing in each treatment group, or number of lambs born, nursed, or weaned per ewe (all P > 0.10). Ewes receiving the highest supplementation rate of Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk had higher BCS (scale 1 to 5) at the end of yr 1 (2.95 vs. 2.66; P = 0.05) than ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk. Performance was better in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk than in lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk or no Se. In yr 1, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 vs 4.9 mg Se/wk were heavier at 120 d of age (37.0 vs. 34.2 kg; P = 0.05). In yr 2, lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk were or tended to be heavier at 60 d of age than lambs from ewes receiving no Se (21.2 vs. 19.0 kg; P = 0.04) or lambs from ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (19.2 kg; P = 0.09). This effect was more pronounced in ewes raising multiple lambs. We conclude that supranutritional supplementation of ewes with Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk improves lamb growth and ewe health without negatively affecting reproductive performance.
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ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal parasites cause substantial economic losses in pasture-based sheep production systems. Supranutritional organic selenium (Se) supplementation may be beneficial because it improves immune responses to pathogens. To evaluate the effect of Se-yeast supplementation on gastrointestinal parasite load, 30 ewes per treatment group were drenched weekly with no Se, 4.9 mg Se/week as Se yeast (maximum FDA-allowed concentration), or supranutritional concentrations of Se yeast (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/week) starting early fall for 85 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at weeks 63, 66, 78, and 84 and counted for total trichostrongyle-type eggs and Haemonchus contortus eggs (in samples with ≥200 trichostrongyle eggs/g feces). During breeding season (fall), ewes were kept on pasture; ewes receiving 24.5 mg Se/week had lower fecal trichostrongyle egg counts (93 ± 40 eggs/g feces) compared with ewes receiving no Se (537 ± 257 eggs/g feces; P = 0.007) or ewes receiving 4.9 mg Se/week as Se yeast (398 ± 208 eggs/g feces; P = 0.03). In winter, fecal trichostrongyle egg counts decreased, and group differences were not apparent. During lambing season (spring), ewes were kept in the barn and fecal trichostrongyle egg counts increased, although no group differences were observed. However, none of the ewes receiving supranutritional Se yeast, and with trichostrongyle egg counts ≥200 eggs/g of feces, but four of the ewes receiving lower Se dosages had H. contortus egg counts ≥1,000 eggs/g feces (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that supranutritional Se-yeast supplementation may enhance resistance to naturally occurring H. contortus gastrointestinal parasitism in sheep.Biological Trace Element Research 09/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0134-1 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for ruminant animals affecting both performance and immune functions. Adding 3 mg of Se/L (in the form of Na selenite) to colostrum has been shown to improve IgG absorption in Se-deficient newborn dairy calves. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation on IgG status of Se-replete dairy calves. The study design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. During the last 8 wk before calving, dairy cows at a commercial dairy were fed either 0 (control cows) or 105 mg of Se-yeast once weekly (supranutritional Se-yeast-supplemented cows), in addition to Na selenite at 0.3 mg of Se/kg of DM in their ration. After birth, calves were fed pooled colostrum from control or supranutritional Se-yeast-supplemented cows to which 0 or 3 mg of Se/L (in the form of Na selenite) was added. Concentrations of whole-blood (WB) Se and serum Se measured at birth and at 48 h and 14 d of age, and serum IgG concentrations measured at 48 h and 14 and 60 d of age were determined. Calves born to Se-yeast-supplemented cows had higher WB-Se and serum-Se concentrations for the first 2 wk, and higher IgG absorption efficiency (62% at 48 h), resulting in higher serum-IgG concentrations (43% at 48 h and 65% at 14 d) and higher total serum-IgG content (50% at 48 h and 75% at 14 d), compared with calves born to control cows. Calves that received colostrum with added Na selenite had higher WB-Se concentrations for the first 2 wk, but only at 14 d of age were serum-Se concentrations, serum-IgG concentrations (53% higher), and total serum-IgG content (56% higher) higher, compared with calves that were fed colostrum without added Na selenite. Calves born to Se-yeast-supplemented cows that received colostrum from Se-yeast cows without added Na selenite had a higher IgG absorption efficiency compared with all other treatment groups. Our results suggest that feeding cows supranutritional Se-yeast supplement during the dry period or spiking colostrum with Na selenite both improve IgG status of Se-replete calves.Journal of Dairy Science 04/2014; 97(7). DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-7481 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dairy cows have increased nutritional requirements for antioxidants postpartum. Supranutritional organic Se supplementation may be beneficial because selenoproteins are involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. Our objective was to determine whether feeding Se-yeast above requirements to Se-replete dairy cows during late gestation affects blood micronutrients, antioxidants, metabolites, and inflammation biomarkers postpartum. During the last 8-weeks before calving, dairy cows at a commercial farm were fed either 0 (control) or 105 mg Se-yeast once weekly (supranutritional Se-yeast), in addition to Na selenite at 0.3 mg Se/kg dry matter in their rations. Concentrations of whole-blood (WB) Se and serum Se, erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), and serum albumin, cholesterol, α-tocopherol, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, non-esterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured directly after calving, at 48 h, and 14 days of lactation in 10 cows of each group. Supranutritional Se-yeast supplementation affected indicators of antioxidant status and inflammation. Cows fed a supranutritional Se-yeast supplement during the last 8-weeks of gestation had higher Se concentrations in WB (overall 52 % higher) and serum (overall 36 % higher) at all-time points, had higher SAA concentrations at 48 h (98 % higher), had higher erythrocyte GSH (38 % higher) and serum albumin concentrations (6.6 % higher) at 14 days, and had lower serum cholesterol concentrations and higher α-tocopherol/cholesterol ratios at calving and at 48 h compared with control cows. In conclusion, feeding Se-replete cows during late gestation a supranutritional Se-yeast supplement improves antioxidant status and immune responses after calving without negatively impacting other micronutrients and energy status.Biological Trace Element Research 08/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0107-4 · 1.61 Impact Factor