Reproducibility of swallow-induced cortical BOLD positive and negative fMRI activity
ABSTRACT Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that a number of brain regions (cingulate, insula, prefrontal, and sensory/motor cortices) display blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) positive activity during swallow. Negative BOLD activations and reproducibility of these activations have not been systematically studied. The aim of our study was to investigate the reproducibility of swallow-related cortical positive and negative BOLD activity across different fMRI sessions. We studied 16 healthy volunteers utilizing an fMRI event-related analysis. Individual analysis using a general linear model was used to remove undesirable signal changes correlated with motion, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The group analysis used a mixed-effects multilevel model to identify active cortical regions. The volume and magnitude of a BOLD signal within each cluster was compared between the two study sessions. All subjects showed significant clustered BOLD activity within the known areas of cortical swallowing network across both sessions. The cross-correlation coefficient of percent fMRI signal change and the number of activated voxels across both positive and negative BOLD networks were similar between the two studies (r ≥ 0.87, P < 0.0001). Swallow-associated negative BOLD activity was comparable to the well-defined "default-mode" network, and positive BOLD activity had noticeable overlap with the previously described "task-positive" network. Swallow activates two parallel cortical networks. These include a positive and a negative BOLD network, respectively, correlated and anticorrelated with swallow stimulus. Group cortical activity maps, as well as extent and amplitude of activity induced by volitional swallowing in the cortical swallowing network, are reproducible between study sessions.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Coherent fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal have been referred to as "functional connectivity" (FC). Our aim was to systematically characterize FC of underlying neural network involved in swallowing, and to evaluate its reproducibility and modulation during rest or task performance. METHODS: Activated seed regions within known areas of the cortical swallowing network (CSN) were independently identified in 16 healthy volunteers. Subjects swallowed using a paradigm driven protocol, and the data analyzed using an event-related technique. Then, in the same 16 volunteers, resting and active state data were obtained for 540s in three conditions: 1) swallowing task; 2) control visual task; and 3) resting state; all scans were performed twice. Data was preprocessed according to standard FC pipeline. We determined the correlation coefficient values of member regions of the CSN across the three aforementioned conditions and compared between two sessions using linear regression. Average FC matrices across conditions were then compared. RESULTS: Swallow activated twenty-two positive BOLD and eighteen negative BOLD regions distributed bilaterally within cingulate, insula, sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal and parietal cortices. We found that: 1) Positive BOLD regions were highly connected to each other during all test conditions while negative BOLD regions were tightly connected among themselves; 2) Positive and negative BOLD regions were anti-correlated at rest and during task performance; 3) Across all three test conditions, FC among the regions was reproducible (r>0.96, p<10-5); and 4) The FC of sensorimotor region to other regions of the CSN increased during swallowing scan. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Swallow activated cortical substrates maintain a consistent pattern of functional connectivity; 2) FC of sensorimotor region is significantly higher during swallow scan than that observed during a non-swallow visual task or at rest.NeuroImage 02/2013; 76(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.01.037 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intrinsic synchronous fluctuations of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal are indicative of the underlying 'functional connectivity' (FC) and serve as a technique to study dynamics of the neuronal networks of the human brain. Earlier studies have characterized the functional connectivity of a distributed network of brain regions involved in swallowing, called brain swallowing network (BSN). The potential modulatory effect of esophageal afferent signals on the BSN, however, has not been systematically studied. Fourteen healthy volunteers underwent steady state functional magnetic resonance imaging across three conditions: (i) transnasal catheter placed in the esophagus without infusion; (ii) buffer solution infused at 1 mL/min; and (iii) acidic solution infused at 1 mL/min. Data were preprocessed according to the standard FC analysis pipeline. We determined the correlation coefficient values of pairs of brain regions involved in swallowing and calculated average group FC matrices across conditions. Effects of subliminal esophageal acidification and nasopharyngeal intubation were determined. Subliminal esophageal acid stimulation augmented the overall FC of the right anterior insula and specifically the FC to the left inferior parietal lobule. Conscious stimulation by nasopharyngeal intubation reduced the overall FC of the right posterior insula, particularly the FC to the right prefrontal operculum. The FC of BSN is amenable to modulation by sensory input. The modulatory effect of sensory pharyngoesophageal stimulation on BSN is mainly mediated through changes in the FC of the insula. The alteration induced by subliminal visceral esophageal acid stimulation is in different insular connections compared with that of conscious somatic pharyngeal stimulation.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 12/2013; 25(12):992-e779. DOI:10.1111/nmo.12238 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated hemodynamic changes in the brain in response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) of swallowing using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Previous studies provide evidence that ME and MI of limb movements lead to comparable brain activation patterns indicating the potential value of MI for motor rehabilitation. In this context, identifying brain correlates of MI of swallowing may be potentially useful for the treatment of dysphagia. Fourteen healthy participants actively swallowed water (ME) and mentally imagined to swallow water (MI) in a randomized order while changes in concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were assessed. MI and ME led to the strongest NIRS signal changes in the inferior frontal gyrus. During and after ME, oxy-Hb significantly increased, with a maximum peak around 15s after task onset. In contrast, oxy-Hb decreased during MI compared to a rest period probably because of motor inhibition mechanisms. Changes in deoxy-Hb were largely comparable between MI and ME, especially when participants used a kinesthetic motor imagery strategy during MI compared to no specific strategy. Hence, the present study provides new evidence concerning timing and topographical distribution of the hemodynamic response during ME and MI of swallowing.NeuroImage 02/2014; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.02.019 · 6.36 Impact Factor