Monocular amblyopia and higher order aberrations.
ABSTRACT This study compared the corneal and total higher order aberrations between the fellow eyes in monocular amblyopia. Nineteen amblyopic subjects (8 refractive and 11 strabismic) (mean age 30 ± 11 years) were recruited. A range of biometric and optical measurements were collected from the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye including; axial length, corneal topography and total higher order aberrations. For a sub-group of eleven non-presbyopic subjects (6 refractive and 5 strabismic amblyopes, mean age 29 ± 10 years) total higher order aberrations were also measured during accommodation (2.5D stimuli). Amblyopic eyes were significantly shorter and more hyperopic compared to non-amblyopic eyes and the interocular difference in axial length correlated with both the magnitude of anisometropia and amblyopia (both p<0.01). Significant differences in higher order aberrations were observed between fellow eyes, which varied with the type of amblyopia. Refractive amblyopes displayed higher levels of 4th order corneal aberrations C(4,0)(spherical aberration), C(4,2)(secondary astigmatism 90°) and C(4,-2)(secondary astigmatism along 45°) in the amblyopic eye compared to the non-amblyopic eye. Strabismic amblyopes exhibited significantly higher levels of C(3,3)(trefoil) in the amblyopic eye for both corneal and total higher order aberrations. During accommodation, the amblyopic eye displayed a significantly greater lag of accommodation compared to the non-amblyopic eye, while the changes in higher order aberrations were similar in magnitude between fellow eyes. Asymmetric visual experience during development appears to be associated with asymmetries in higher order aberrations, in some cases proportional to the magnitude of anisometropia and dependent upon the amblyogenic factor.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To compare the retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (ChT) between the fellow eyes of non-amblyopic myopic anisometropes. METHODS: The eyes of 22 non-amblyopic myopic anisometropes (≥ 1 D spherical equivalent refraction [SER] anisometropia) were examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Customised software was used to register, align and average multiple foveal OCT B-Scan images from each subject in order to enhance image quality. Two independent masked observers manually determined the RT and ChT from each SD-OCT image up to 2.5 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea. Axial length (AXL) was measured using optical low coherence biometry during relaxed accommodation. RESULTS: The mean SER anisometropia was 1.74 ± 0.95 D and the mean interocular AXL difference was 0.58 ± 0.41 mm. There was no significant difference in foveal RT between the fellow eyes (P > 0.05). Mean subfoveal ChT was significantly thinner in the more myopic eye (252 ± 46 µm) compared to the fellow, less myopic eye (286 ± 58 µm) (P < 0.001). There was a moderate correlation between the interocular difference in subfoveal ChT and the interocular difference in AXL (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). Asian anisometropes displayed more regionally symmetrical (nasal-temporal) interocular differences in ChT profile compared to Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: RT was similar between the fellow eyes of myopic anisometropes; however, the subfoveal choroid was significantly thinner in the more myopic (longer) eye of this anisometropic cohort. The interocular asymmetry in ChT correlated with the interocular difference in AXL.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2013; 54(4):2445-2456. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To examine the symmetry of corneal changes following near work in the fellow eyes of non-amblyopic myopic anisometropes. METHODS: Thirty-four non-amblyopic, myopic anisometropes (minimum 1 D spherical equivalent anisometropia) had corneal topography measured before and after a controlled near work task. Subjects were positioned in a headrest to minimise head movements and read continuous text on a computer monitor for 10 min at an angle of 25 degrees downward gaze and an accommodation demand of 2.5 D. Measures of the morphology of the palpebral aperture during primary and downward gaze were also obtained. RESULTS: The more and less myopic eyes exhibited a high degree of interocular symmetry for measures of palpebral aperture morphology during both primary and downward gaze. Following the near work task, fellow eyes also displayed a symmetrical change in superior corneal topography (hyperopic defocus) which correlated with the position of the upper eyelid during downward gaze. Greater changes in the spherical corneal power vector (M) following reading were associated with a narrower palpebral aperture during downward gaze (p = 0.07 for more myopic and p = 0.03 for less myopic eyes). A significantly greater change in J0 (an increase in against the rule astigmatism) was observed in the more myopic eyes (-0.04 ± 0.04 D) compared to the less myopic eyes (-0.02 ± 0.06 D) over a 6 mm corneal diameter (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in corneal topography following near work are highly symmetrical between the fellow eyes of myopic anisometropes due to the interocular symmetry of the palpebral aperture. However, the more myopic eye exhibits changes in corneal astigmatism of greater magnitude compared to the less myopic eye.Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 01/2013; 33:15-25. · 1.74 Impact Factor