Monocular amblyopia and higher order aberrations
Contact Lens and Visual Optics Laboratory, School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.Vision research (Impact Factor: 1.82). 07/2012; 66:39-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2012.06.016
This study compared the corneal and total higher order aberrations between the fellow eyes in monocular amblyopia. Nineteen amblyopic subjects (8 refractive and 11 strabismic) (mean age 30 ± 11 years) were recruited. A range of biometric and optical measurements were collected from the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye including; axial length, corneal topography and total higher order aberrations. For a sub-group of eleven non-presbyopic subjects (6 refractive and 5 strabismic amblyopes, mean age 29 ± 10 years) total higher order aberrations were also measured during accommodation (2.5D stimuli). Amblyopic eyes were significantly shorter and more hyperopic compared to non-amblyopic eyes and the interocular difference in axial length correlated with both the magnitude of anisometropia and amblyopia (both p<0.01). Significant differences in higher order aberrations were observed between fellow eyes, which varied with the type of amblyopia. Refractive amblyopes displayed higher levels of 4th order corneal aberrations C(4,0)(spherical aberration), C(4,2)(secondary astigmatism 90°) and C(4,-2)(secondary astigmatism along 45°) in the amblyopic eye compared to the non-amblyopic eye. Strabismic amblyopes exhibited significantly higher levels of C(3,3)(trefoil) in the amblyopic eye for both corneal and total higher order aberrations. During accommodation, the amblyopic eye displayed a significantly greater lag of accommodation compared to the non-amblyopic eye, while the changes in higher order aberrations were similar in magnitude between fellow eyes. Asymmetric visual experience during development appears to be associated with asymmetries in higher order aberrations, in some cases proportional to the magnitude of anisometropia and dependent upon the amblyogenic factor.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To use a large wave-front database of a clinical population to investigate relationships between refractions and higher-order aberrations and between aberrations of right and left eyes. Methods: Third- and fourth-order aberration coefficients and higher-order root-mean-squared aberrations (HO RMS), scaled to a pupil size of 4.5-mm diameter, were analyzed in a population of approximately 24,000 patients from Carl Zeiss Vision's European wave-front database. Correlations were determined between the aberrations and the variables of refraction, near addition, and cylinder. Results: Most aberration coefficients were significantly dependent upon these variables, but the proportion of aberrations that could be explained by these factors was less than 2% except for spherical aberration (12%), horizontal coma (9%), and HO RMS (7%). Near addition was the major contributor for horizontal coma (8.5% out of 9.5%) and spherical equivalent was the major contributor for spherical aberration (7.7% out of 11.6%). Interocular correlations were highly significant for all aberration coefficients, varying between 0.16 and 0.81. Anisometropia was a variable of significance for three aberrations (vertical coma, secondary astigmatism, and tetrafoil), but little importance can be placed on this finding because of the small proportion of aberrations that can be explained by refraction (all <1.0%). Conclusions: Most third- and fourth-order aberration coefficients were significantly dependent upon spherical equivalent, near addition, and cylinder, but only horizontal coma (9%) and spherical aberration (12%) showed dependencies greater than 2%. Interocular correlations were highly significant for all aberration coefficients, but anisometropia had little influence on aberration coefficients.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2012; 53(12). DOI:10.1167/iovs.12-10610 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose/aim: Myopia incidence is increasing around the world. Myopization is considered to be caused by a variety of factors. One consideration is whether higher-order aberrations (HOA) influence myopization. More knowledge of optics in anisometropic eyes might give further insight into the development of refractive error. Materials and methods: To analyze the possible influence of HOA on refractive error development, we compared HOA between anisometropes and isometropes. We analyzed HOA up to the 4th order for both eyes of 20 anisometropes (mean age: 43 ± 17 years) and 20 isometropes (mean age: 33 ± 17 years). HOA were measured with the Shack-Hartman i.Profiler (Carl Zeiss, Germany) and were recalculated for a 4 mm pupil. Mean spherical equivalent (MSE) was based on the subjective refraction. Anisometropia was defined as ≥1 D interocular difference in MSE. The mean absolute differences between right and left eyes in spherical equivalent were 0.28 ± 0.21 D in the isometropic group and 2.81 ± 2.04 D in the anisometropic group. Interocular differences in HOA were compared with the interocular difference in MSE using correlations. Results: For isometropes oblique trefoil, vertical coma, horizontal coma and spherical aberration showed significant correlations between the two eyes. In anisometropes, all analyzed higher-order aberrations correlated significantly between the two eyes except oblique secondary astigmatism and secondary astigmatism. When analyzing anisometropes and isometropes separately, no significant correlations were found between interocular differences of higher-order aberrations and MSE. For isometropes and anisometropes combined, tetrafoil correlated significantly with MSE in left eyes. Conclusions: The present study could not show that interocular differences of higher-order aberrations increase with increasing interocular difference in MSE.Current eye research 11/2012; 38(1). DOI:10.3109/02713683.2012.738462 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the symmetry of corneal changes following near work in the fellow eyes of non-amblyopic myopic anisometropes. Methods: Thirty-four non-amblyopic, myopic anisometropes (minimum 1 D spherical equivalent anisometropia) had corneal topography measured before and after a controlled near work task. Subjects were positioned in a headrest to minimise head movements and read continuous text on a computer monitor for 10 min at an angle of 25 degrees downward gaze and an accommodation demand of 2.5 D. Measures of the morphology of the palpebral aperture during primary and downward gaze were also obtained. Results: The more and less myopic eyes exhibited a high degree of interocular symmetry for measures of palpebral aperture morphology during both primary and downward gaze. Following the near work task, fellow eyes also displayed a symmetrical change in superior corneal topography (hyperopic defocus) which correlated with the position of the upper eyelid during downward gaze. Greater changes in the spherical corneal power vector (M) following reading were associated with a narrower palpebral aperture during downward gaze (p = 0.07 for more myopic and p = 0.03 for less myopic eyes). A significantly greater change in J0 (an increase in against the rule astigmatism) was observed in the more myopic eyes (-0.04 ± 0.04 D) compared to the less myopic eyes (-0.02 ± 0.06 D) over a 6 mm corneal diameter (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Changes in corneal topography following near work are highly symmetrical between the fellow eyes of myopic anisometropes due to the interocular symmetry of the palpebral aperture. However, the more myopic eye exhibits changes in corneal astigmatism of greater magnitude compared to the less myopic eye.Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 01/2013; 33:15-25. DOI:10.1111/opo.12003 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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