Potent Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect after Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic SCT for Intermediate-Risk AML with FLT3-ITD or Wild-Type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD
ABSTRACT To investigate the role of reduced-intensity allogeneic (RIC-allo) stem cell transplant (SCT) as postremission therapy in adult intermediate-risk patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD or wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD, we conducted a single-center retrospective study between January 2001 and December 2010. Sixty-six patients were included: 37 treated with RIC-alloSCT and 29 with nonallogeneic SCT therapies. Both groups were comparable concerning age, WBC count at diagnosis, gender, karyotype, genotype, and number of courses of chemotherapy to reach complete remission (CR1). Median follow-up after CR1 was 37 months (range, 11-112 months) and 48 months (range, 9-83 months) in the allo and no-allo groups, respectively. In the allo versus no-allo groups, the 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) rates were 25% ± 8% versus 61% ± 9%; P = .005. The 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 22% ± 7% versus 4% ± 4% (P = .005), 52% ± 9% versus 44% ± 10% (P = .75), and 53% ± 9% versus 35% ± 9% (P = .28), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that CIR was reduced by allo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .01). A landmark analysis performed at day 185 after CR1 confirmed a lower CIR after allo. RIC-allo reduces the risk of relapse, suggesting a potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in these patients at a high risk of relapse.
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ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a molecularly heterogeneous disease. Based on cytogenetics and FISH, AML patients are stratified into three major risk categories: favourable, intermediate and unfavourable. However, prognostic stratification and treatment decision for the intermediate risk category, that mostly comprises AML patients with normal cytogenetics (CN-AML), has been difficult due to the clinical heterogeneity and scarce knowledge of the molecular alterations underlying this large AML subgroup. During the past decade, the identification of several mutations associated with CN-AML has resulted into important advances in the AML field. In this review, we address the biological features of the main mutations associated with CN-AML and the impact of next generation sequencing studies in expanding our knowledge of the molecular landscape of CN-AML. In addition, we outline the prognostic value of mutations for risk stratification of CN-AML patients and discuss the potential of mutations discovery process for developing new molecular targeted therapies.Blood reviews 12/2012; 27(1). DOI:10.1016/j.blre.2012.11.001 · 5.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) traditionally classified as having an intermediate cytogenetic risk [mostly cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML)] really include a significant proportion of cases with a poor outcome. This is based on the molecular findings at diagnosis, mainly the presence of internal tandem duplication in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene(s) (FLT3/ITD). Optimal postremission therapy for these high-risk molecular cases is not well established; as the prognosis is adverse hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), mainly allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT), is the most widely accepted strategy. As a rule, patients with FLT3/ITD have a poor outcome with conventional chemotherapy alone. Only patients with an associated nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation and those with a low mutated-to-wild-type allelic ratio of FLT3/ITD have less unfavorable outcome. Most studies show an advantage of allo-HCT in first complete remission (CR1), with higher 3-5 year disease-free survival and lower relapse risk than with chemotherapy or autologous transplantation (auto-HCT). Regarding allo-HCT proceeding early after reaching CR1 seems to improve survival, rather than after several courses of consolidation chemotherapy. Patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics AML and FLT3/ITD, especially NPM1-wild cases and those NPM1 mutated with a high allelic ratio, should proceed to allo-HCT if possible early after achieving CR1.Current opinion in oncology 03/2013; 25(2):195-204. DOI:10.1097/CCO.0b013e32835ec91f · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Internal tandem duplications of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are one of the most frequent gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcome. The remission rate is high with intensive chemotherapy, but most of the patients eventually relapse. During the last decade, FLT3 mutations have emerged as an attractive target for a molecularly-specific treatment strategy. Targeting FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinases in AML has shown encouraging results in the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, but in most of the patients responses are incomplete and not sustained. Newer, more specific compounds seem to have a higher potency and selectivity against FLT3. During therapy with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) the induction of acquired resistance has emerged as a clinical problem. Therefore, optimization of the targeted therapy and potential treatment options to overcome resistance is currently the focus of clinical research. In this review we discuss the use and limitations of TKIs as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, including mechanisms of resistance to TKIs as well as possible novel strategies to improve FLT3 inhibitor therapy.Leukemia & lymphoma 04/2013; 55(2). DOI:10.3109/10428194.2013.800198 · 2.89 Impact Factor