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Screening pearl millet germplasm for tolerance to soil salinity

International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter 01/2003; 44:155-157.
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    ABSTRACT: Six hundred accessions of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) landraces and its wild relatives from 28 different countries, available at Australian Temperate and Field Crops Collection (ATFCC) were screened for tolerance to salt under greenhouse conditions using three sampling strategies; (1) random sampling of 200 accessions from different countries, (2) restricted random sampling of 200 accessions from geographical regions with salinity problems and high diversity (Middle East and West & South Asia) and (3) as for strategy 1 but with a reduced representation of accessions from the geographical regions used in strategy 2. Degree of salt tolerance was based on necrosis scores and shoot biomass reduction relative to unstressed controls at harvest after subjecting stressed plants to salt treatment from 21 to 42days after sowing. There was a wide variation in salinity tolerance determined by both measures. For sampling strategies 1, 2 and 3 respectively; 24, 28 and 14% of accessions were salt tolerant. Accessions from the middle east and south Asian (regions with salinity problem, a long history of chickpea cultivation and high diversity) gave a higher probability (P<0.01) of getting salt tolerant accessions.
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 01/2008; 55(1):53-63. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of two experiments carried out to standardize a protocol for the screening of salt-tolerant groundnut genotypes. The objectives were: (i) to identify an optimum NaCl treatment; (ii) to explore the potential tolerance mechanisms; and (iii) to assess the genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in groundnut. Results showed that 100-125 mM of NaCl was suitable to screen for salinity tolerance in groundnut. The material screened in this study was very limited by large differences could be observed for response to salinity, indicating a good scope for identifying genotypes with higher level of tolerance from larger screening of diverse sets of materials. Reduction in leaf size and stem/leaf ratio was observed in response to salinity. This indicates arrest of leaf expansions, which eventually limits the area available for photosynthesis. Further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of salinity tolerance in groundnut.
    Journal of SAT Agricultural Research. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: The adaptability and productivity of cool-season food legumes (chickpea, faba bean, lentil, pea) are limited by major abiotic stresses including drought, heat, frost, chilling, waterlogging, salinity and mineral toxicities. The severity of these stresses is unpredictable in field experiments, so field trials are increasingly supplemented with controlled-environment testing and physiological screening. For drought testing, irrigation is used in dry fields and rain-out shelters in damp ones. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) is a well-established screen for drought tolerance in C3 cereal crops which is now being validated for use in grain legumes, but it is relatively expensive per sample and more economical methods include stomatal conductance and canopy temperature. Chickpea lines ICC4958 and FLIP87-59C and faba bean line ILB938 have demonstrated good drought tolerance parameters in different experiments. For frost tolerance, an efficient controlled-environment procedure involves exposing hardened pot-grown plants to sub-zero temperatures. Faba beans Cote d’Or and BPL4628 as well as lentil ILL5865 have demonstrated good freezing tolerance in such tests. Chilling-tolerance tests are more commonly conducted in the field and lentil line ILL1878 as well as derivatives of interspecific crosses between chickpea and its wild relatives have repeatedly shown good results. The timing of chilling is particularly important as temperatures which are not lethal to the plant can greatly disrupt fertilization of flowers. Salinity response can be determined using hydroponic methods with a sand or gravel substrate and rapid, efficient scoring is based on leaf symptoms. Many lines of chickpea, faba bean and lentil have shown good salinity tolerance in a single article but none has become a benchmark. Waterlogging tolerance can be evaluated using paired hydroponic systems, one oxygenated and the other de-oxygenated. The development of lysigenous cavities or aerenchyma in roots, common in warm-season legumes, is reported in pea and lentil but is not well established in chickpea or faba bean. Many stresses are associated with oxidative damage leading to changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, membrane stability and peroxidase levels. An additional factor relevant to the legumes is the response of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria to the stress.
    Euphytica 04/2006; 147(1):167-186. · 1.64 Impact Factor

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