Mechanism of the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and epoxides catalyzed by cobalt-substituted 12-tungstenphosphate.
ABSTRACT Co(II)-substituted α-Keggin-type 12-tungstenphosphate [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)N](4)H[PW(11)Co(H(2)O)O(39)]-(PW(11)Co) is synthesized and used as a single-component, solvent-free catalyst in the cycloaddition reaction of CO(2) and epoxides to form cyclic carbonates. The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction is investigated using DFT calculations, which provides the first computational study of the catalytic cycle of polyoxometalate-catalyzed CO(2) coupling reactions. The reaction occurs through a single-electron transfer from the doublet Co(II) catalyst to the epoxide and forms a doublet Co(III)-carbon radical intermediate. Subsequent CO(2) addition forms the cyclic carbonate product. The existence of radical intermediates is supported by free-radical termination experiments. Finally, it is exhilarating to observe that the calculated overall reaction barrier (30.5 kcal mol(-1)) is in good agreement with the real reaction rate (83 h(-1)) determined in the present experiments (at 15 °C).
- Chemical Reviews 07/2007; 107(6):2388-410. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tetraheptylammonium salts of various transition-metal-substituted heteropolyanions with alpha-Keggin ([XW(11)O(39)M](n)()(-)), alpha-Wells-Dawson ([P(2)W(17)O(61)M](m)(-)), and Weakley and Finke structures ([P(2)W(18)O(68)Co(4)](10)(-)) were investigated with respect to their reactivity with CO(2) in nonpolar solvents. It was found that copper(II)- and manganese(III)-substituted heteropolyanions do not react with CO(2). Germano- and silicotungstates with the alpha-Keggin structure do form complexes with CO(2) when substituted with Co(II), Ni(II), and Mn(II). In contrast, boro- and phosphotungstates substituted with Co(II), Ni(II), and Mn(II) are unreactive. The alpha(2) isomers of Wells-Dawson phosphotungstates show reactivity similar to that of alpha-Keggin silicotungstates-i.e., Co(II), Ni(II), and Mn(II) derivatives do react with CO(2). On the other hand, the alpha(1) isomer of the Co(II)-substituted Wells-Dawson anion does not react with CO(2), and neither does the Weakley and Finke cobaltotungstate. When reactions do occur, they are completely reversible. An excess of water decomposes the complexes. Traces of water are, however, necessary for the reactions to take place. The CO(2) adducts were characterized by UV/vis, IR, and (13)C NMR. The IR data could be explained as originating either from CO(2) complexes with a direct eta(1) metal-carbon bond or from bicarbonato complexes. IR spectra with isotopically enriched (13)CO(2) and C(18)O(2) support the presence of a eta(1) metal-carbon bond. The (13)C NMR spectra indicate the presence of two different kinds of paramagnetic CO(2) complexes after the reaction of alpha-[SiW(11)O(39)Co](6)(-) with CO(2) (chemical shifts 792 and 596 ppm at 26 degrees C). The variable-temperature experiments are consistent with the chemical exchange between these two species. UV/vis, IR, and NMR studies in the presence of controlled amounts of water or ethanol suggest the existence of H-bonding in the CO(2) complexes, similar to that reported in the past for complexes between heteropolyanions and dioxygen.Inorganic Chemistry 09/1998; 37(17):4344-4352. · 4.59 Impact Factor
- Chemical Reviews 07/2005; 105(6):2075-149. · 41.30 Impact Factor