Article

MLH1 methylation screening is effective in identifying epimutation carriers.

Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, ICO-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG (Impact Factor: 4.23). 07/2012; DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.136
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, constitutional MLH1 epimutations have been identified in a subset of Lynch syndrome (LS) cases. The aim of this study was the identification of patients harboring constitutional MLH1 epimutations in a set of 34 patients with a clinical suspicion of LS, MLH1-methylated tumors and non-detected germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed in lymphocyte DNA samples by MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification). Confirmation of MLH1 constitutional methylation was performed by MS-MCA (Methylation-specific melting curve analysis), bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing in different biological samples. Allelic expression was determined using heterozygous polymorphisms. Vertical transmission was evaluated by MS-MLPA and haplotype analyses. MS-MLPA analysis detected constitutional MLH1 methylation in 2 of the 34 individuals whose colorectal cancers showed MLH1 methylation (5.9%). These results were confirmed by bisulfite-based methods. Both epimutation carriers had developed metachronous early-onset LS tumors, with no family history of LS-associated cancers in their first-degree relatives. In one of the cases, the identified MLH1 constitutional methylation was monoallelic and results in MLH1 and EPM2AIP1 allele-specific transcriptional silencing. It was present in normal somatic tissues and absent in spermatozoa. The methylated MLH1 allele was maternally transmitted and methylation was reversed in a daughter who inherited the same allele. MLH1 methylation screening in lymphocyte DNA from patients with early-onset MLH1-methylated LS-associated tumors allows the identification of epimutation carriers. The present study adds further evidence to the emerging entity of soma-wide MLH1 epimutation and its heritability.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 4 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.136.

Full-text

Available from: Ester Borràs, Mar 17, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
256 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an early event in carcinogenesis and a potential target for personalized cancer treatment. In head and neck cancer, little is known about the role of promoter hypermethylation in survival. Using methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) we investigated the role of promoter hypermethylation of 24 well-described genes (some of which are classic TSGs), which are frequently methylated in different cancer types, in 166 HPV-negative early oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and 51 HPV-negative early oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) in relation to clinicopathological features and survival. Early OSCC showed frequent promoter hypermethylation in RARB (31% of cases), CHFR (20%), CDH13 (13%), DAPK1 (12%), and APC (10%). More hypermethylation (≥ 2 genes) independently correlated with improved disease specific survival (hazard ratio 0.17, P = 0.014) in early OSCC and could therefore be used as prognostic biomarker. Early OPSCCs showed more hypermethylation of CDH13 (58%), TP73 (14%), and total hypermethylated genes. Hypermethylation of two or more genes has a significantly different effect on survival in OPSCC compared with OSCC, with a trend toward worse instead of better survival. This could have a biological explanation, which deserves further investigation and could possibly lead to more stratified treatment in the future.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 07/2014; 9(9). DOI:10.4161/epi.29785 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inherited defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes, underlie Lynch syndrome, one of the most prevalent cancer syndromes in man. The syndrome offers a model for cancers arising through MMR defects and microsatellite instability, which applies to approximately 15% of all colorectal, endometrial, and other cancers. Lynch syndrome also illustrates the significance of the epigenetic component in cancer development. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes by epigenetic mechanisms is an acquired property of many tumors developing in Lynch syndrome. Furthermore, constitutional epimutations of MMR genes may explain a proportion of mutation-negative families lacking MLH1 or MSH2 protein expression in tumor tissue. This review provides an update of the molecular basis of Lynch syndrome by focusing on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the disease.
    Clinical Genetics 01/2014; 85(5). DOI:10.1111/cge.12349 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes seems to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible. This makes methylation a possible therapeutic target, a marker for treatment response and/or a prognostic factor. Methylation status of 40 tumor suppressor genes was compared between 53 primary breast tumors and their corresponding metastases to brain, lung, liver, or skin. In paired analyses, a significant decrease in methylation values was seen in distant metastases compared to their primaries in 21/40 individual tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, primary tumors that metastasized to the liver clustered together, in line with the finding that primary breast carcinomas that metastasized to the brain, skin, or lung, showed higher methylation values in up to 27.5 % of tumor suppressor genes than primary carcinomas that metastasized to the liver. Conversion in methylation status of several genes from the primary tumor to the metastasis had prognostic value, and methylation status of some genes in the metastases predicted survival after onset of metastases. Methylation levels for most of the analyzed tumor suppressor genes were lower in distant metastases compared to their primaries, pointing to the dynamic aspect of methylation of these tumor suppressor genes during cancer progression. Also, specific distant metastatic sites seem to show differences in methylation patterns, implying that hypermethylation profiles of the primaries may steer site-specific metastatic spread. Lastly, methylation status of the metastases seems to have prognostic value. These promising findings warrant further validation in larger patient cohorts and more tumor suppressor genes.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2015; 151(1). DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3362-y · 4.20 Impact Factor