HCV burden of infection in Egypt: results from a nationwide survey
ABSTRACT Egypt is the country with the largest hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in the world. In 2008, a Demographic Health Survey (DHS) was carried out in Egypt, providing for the first time a unique opportunity for HCV antibody testing on a nationwide representative sample of individuals. Consenting individuals answered a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and iatrogenic exposures, before providing a blood sample for HCV antibody testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Factors independently associated with HCV infection were examined through multivariate logistic regression models. Of 12 780 eligible subjects aged 15-59 years, 11 126 (87.1%) agreed to participate and provided a blood sample. HCV antibody prevalence nationwide was 14.7% (95% CI 13.9-15.5%) in this age group. HCV antibody prevalence gradually increased with age, reaching, in the 50-59 years age group, 46.3% and 30.8% in males and females, respectively. It was higher in males compared to females (17.4% versus 12.2%, respectively, P < 0.001), and in rural compared to urban areas (18.3% versus 10.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, poverty, past history of intravenous anti-schistosomiasis treatment, blood transfusion, and living outside of the Frontier Governorates were all significantly associated with an increased risk of HCV infection. In addition, in urban areas, lack of education and being circumcised for females were associated with an increased risk of HCV infection. This study confirmed on a nationwide representative sample the very high HCV antibody prevalence in Egypt. It stresses the urgent need for strengthening prevention efforts, and bringing down the costs of antiviral drugs for countries like Egypt, where the people in the most precarious situations are also those most likely to be infected by the virus.
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ABSTRACT: Daclatasvir (DCV) is an approved NS5A inhibitor with potent anti-HCV activity and broad genotype coverage. DCV resistance-associated variants (RAVs) have been described for patients infected with genotype (GT) 1, but increased GT4 prevalence in European countries as a result of immigration has boosted interest in this genotype. Establishment of NS5A variability in treatment-naive patients with HCV genotype 4 infection and a case study of the dynamics of resistance-associated variants in a virologic failure receiving pIFN/RBV+DCV, as assessed by ultra-deep sequencing. Five treatment-naïve GT4 patients (GT4a [n=1], GT4d [n=3], GT4o [n=1]) were evaluated for inclusion in the COMMAND-4 study and treatment with pIFN/RBV±DCV. Patient (Pt) 1 received pIFN/RBV; Pts2-4 received pIFN/RBV + DCV; Pt5 was a screening failure. Pt1 relapsed; Pt2 experienced breakthrough at Wk4; Pts3 and 4 achieved a sustained virologic response. No substitutions associated with DCV-resistance were detected at baseline. In terms of viremic time points for Pts1 and 2, the extent of NS5A diversity pre-treatment was not significantly related to viral load (r = -0568; p = 0.035). In Pt2, multiple substitutions associated with DCV-resistance were observed after breakthrough at NS5A amino acid positions 28, 31 and 93. These substitutions were frequently observed on the same haplotype (L28S + M31I = 55.52, 82.50, and 99.36% at Wk4, 8 and 9; L28S + M31I + Y93H = 11.77, 5.01 and <0.6% at Wk4, 8 and 9). This is the first report to describe DCV-resistance in patients infected with GT4d, supporting a possible role for a recently described RAV (L28S), and presenting the dynamics of HCV quasispecies during therapy failure, with indications of changes of diversity and association of mutations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Clinical Virology 02/2015; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.02.001
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15-59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8-19.6). HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7%) than the wives (12.1%; P < 0.001). Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6-2.9) and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.1) for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC) had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.03/2014; 2014:164357. DOI:10.1155/2014/164357
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C is a global health problem with a worldwide prevalence of about 3% (around 170 million people). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is major concern in the Maghreb countries, Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia, but no detailed description of its epidemiology in the region is available. In the present review, a systematic search was undertaken covering HCV data available in peer-reviewed databases as well as institutional reports and regional conference meeting abstracts from the Maghreb countries. Reports written in English and French were included in this analysis. Estimates of national and regional prevalence of HCV infection (based on anti-HCV antibody) and of the size of patient populations were performed. In addition, the molecular features of the circulating viral strains in the region are discussed. A substantial proportion, 1.2–1.9% of the Maghreb inhabitants, have anti-HCV antibodies. Genotype 1b predominates among viral strains in all countries except in Libya, where genotype 4 is dominant as in neighboring Egypt. This epidemiological situation is of significant concern, and requires urgent, broad, and active intervention for the prevention and control of HCV. More specifically, the application of state-of-the-art hygiene procedures and rigorous controls in medical disciplines such as hemodialysis, transfusion, endoscopic procedures, and dentistry is necessary to reduce significantly the number of new infections in the region.Journal of Medical Virology 09/2013; 85(9). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23643