A molting rhythm for serum proteins of the cockroach, Blatta orientalis
ABSTRACT 1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 4% gels of Blatta orientalis larval hemolymph revealed 4 major proteins. 2. Maximum incorporation of [14C]-leucine into total hemolymph protein occurs within 24 hr and is followed by negligible turnover in the next 24 hr. 3. Quantitative PAGE was used to monitor concentration changes during the molting cycle in synchronously molting cultures. 4. All 4 proteins show the same temporal rhythm of variation but different amplitudes. 5. The widely differing concentrations achieved are accounted for by different rates of synthesis.
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- "It is easy once one has an antiserum specific to a single protein to concentrate on that one protein and forget the remainder. For instance, a focus on the variation in titer of a particular larval-specific serum protein during the life cycle of a cockroach (Kunkel and Lawler, 1973; Kunkel, 1975) revealed a major fluctuation associated with the molting cycle; a few years later, a more comprehensive study found that all the other major serum proteins of the cockroach were fluctuating in concert (Duhamel and Kunkel, 1978). If a general antiserum to all the serum proteins had been used initially, this emphasis on the cyclical fluctuation of the single serum protein would not have occurred. "
Article: Analytic Immunologic Techniques[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This is a chapter in Immunological Techniques in Insect Biology (1988) LI Gilbert & TA Miller Eds. Analytic immunologic procedures have become important parts of the arsenal of techniques for describing and elucidating physiologic and developmental changes in naturally occurring antigens (Ags) from insects. Antisera, which are solutions of the natural defense secretions produced by vertebrate immune systems in response to foreign antigens, can be used as analytic reagents to make quantitative as well as qualitative measurements of these insect Ags. An antiserum contains antibodies (ABs) which are used to identify the components that are present in a complex mixture and measure their relative or absolute titers at the same time. Immunology also provides objective methods for deciding on the homology or degree of homology between similar macromolecules from different species or different stages or tissues from a single species.
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- "Thus, the allometric changes that occur on a biochemical and morphological level during metamorphosis must be viewed against the backdrop of the cyclical molting physiology (Kunkel, 1975a; 1975b; Duhamel and Kunkel, 1978) that dominates insect growth and development. "
ABSTRACT: The hemimetabolous type of metamorphosis, as exemplified by the cockroach, is, in many respects, a minimal model of metamorphosis. The ecology of the larva and adult is often quite similar, and most of the functional larval tissues continue to be functional in the adult. The metamorphosis is often described as 'incomplete' or 'gradual'. A transition stage between immature and adult, the nymph, is distinguished by some investigators in specific groups of hemimetabolous insects. The use of the term 'nymph' is useful. The nymph, as opposed to a larva in general, has developed wing pads and in some groups, including the cockroaches, is diagnostic of the fact that metamorphosis will occur with the next molt. The last instar larval cockroach will be called a nymph, while retaining the more traditional term 'penultimate larva' for the next to last larval instar. The nymph stage has been given special meaning and formalized with relation to the caste system in the termites, immunologically close relatives of the cockroach. The termite nymph has already undergone some metamorphic changes and is restricted in its developmental potencies; it is capable of becoming a functional reproductive but not a soldier as shown by Wilson in 1975.
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ABSTRACT: Hemolymph clotting in the Blattarian speciesLeucophaea maderae was analyzed by immunological methods.1. Experimentally induced (by freezing and thawing) disintegration of hemocytes — in the absence of plasma proteins — is followed by the formation of a clot-like gel. This gel resists treatment with strong detergents, but is dissolved by reducing agents and proteolytic enzymes. The gel material forms part of the native hemolymph clot. It is mainly contained in the granules of the hemocytes from which it is released during clotting. This hemocyte derived clotting protein is calledhemocyte coagulogen. 2. During normal hemolymph clotting one of the plasma proteins disappears from the hemolymph; this protein also becomes incorporated into the native hemolymph clot which is — as compared to the gel — more rigid and not soluble in reducing agents. This second clotting protein — theplasma coagulogen —cannot be found in intact hemocytes. 3. Clotting of the plasma coagulogen is possible only in the presence of the hemocyte coagulogen. 4. Both coagulogens are shown to be present in theislands of coagulation at exactly the same places. 5. Conditions of plasma clotting, differences in solubility between gel and clot, and the common occurrence of both coagulogens in the islands of coagulation are strong arguments for an interaction of the two coagulogens during clotting; the hypothesis is put forward that the two coagulogens in the native clot are interconnected to form a common network.Journal of Comparative Physiology B 05/1981; 143(2):169-184. DOI:10.1007/BF00797696 · 2.62 Impact Factor