Induction of the hepatic microsomal and nuclear cytochrome P-450 system by hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and trichlorophenol.
ABSTRACT The application of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) to female rats led to an induction of both the microsomal and the nuclear cytochrome P-450 system in the liver. The increase of th mixed-function hydroxylase activities examined (7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase, NADPH-dependent cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine demethylase, benzpyrene hydroxylase) did not correlate strictly with the cytochrome P-450 content. Depending on the inducers and the substrates used, the content and the activity of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially smaller in the nuclei than in the microsomes. It was striking that in the nuclei those activities (benzpyrene hydroxylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin deethylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase) were preferably induced which can be attributed to the methyl-cholanthrene-induced form of the cytochrome P-450 (cytochrome P-448). These results suggest, also in the light of findings of other authors, the induction of different species of cytochrome P-450 in the nuclei and microsomes.
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ABSTRACT: Altered intestinal enzyme activity significantly affects the biotransformation and toxicity of many xenobiotics. This article summarizes research, supported by the U.S. Air Force Bioenvironmental Hazards Research Program, that employs a novel gas-liquid chromatographic assay to investigate the effects of age, species difference, antibiotics, and environmental chemicals on enzyme activity in various regions of the intestinal tract. Significant research findings include the following: (a) age-dependent alterations in enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the developing animal that suggest a changing susceptibility to toxicants during this period; (b) discovery of previously unreported mucosal enzymes in the small intestine that are present in germ-free rats and are not susceptible to antibiotics; (c) markedly greater intestinal nitroreductase activity and significantly higher bioactivation of the procarcinogen 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) in CD-1 mice than in Fischer 344 rats; (d) significantly altered intestinal enzyme activity in rats pretreated with lindane, pentachlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), or Aroclor 1254; (e) potentiated DNT genotoxicity by Aroclor 1254 and pentachlorophenol pretreatment; and (f) a transient antagonism of DNT genotoxicity by 2,4,5-T pretreatment. Enzyme activity in the small intestine may have greater toxicological importance than previously thought in the biotransformation of environmental chemicals and as an indicator of change in the microbial flora.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2009; 12(8):1339 - 1352. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Salton Sea, the largest manmade lake in California, is officially designated by the State of California as an agricultural drainage reservoir. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, as well as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in sediments and fish tissues in the Salton Sea and evaluate the relative ecological risk of these compounds. Sediment samples were taken during 2000-2001 and fish tissues (Tilapia mossambique, Cynoscion xanthulu) were collected in May 2001. All samples were analyzed for 12 chlorinated pesticides, 6 organophosphorus pesticides, and 55 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. SigmaDichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (SigmaDDT) and total PCB concentrations observed in sediments ranged from 10 to 40 and 116 to 304 ng/g dry wt, respectively. DDT/DDD ratios in sediments and fish tissues of the northern Sea in 2001 indicated recent DDT exposure. Lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenylethane (DDE) and total PCB concentrations detected in sediments exceeded probable effect levels established for freshwater ecosystems, and pp-DDE and total PCB concentrations were higher than effect range-median values developed for marine and estuarine sediments. In fish liver, concentrations of endrin and SigmaDDT exceeded threshold effect level established for invertebrates. SigmaDDT concentrations detected in fish tissues were higher than threshold concentrations for the protection of wildlife consumers of aquatic biota. DDE concentrations in fish muscles tissues were above the 50 ng/g concentration threshold for the protection of predatory birds. Dimethoate, diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifos, disulfoton varied from < or = 0.15 to 9.5 ng/g dry wt in sediments and from < or = 0.1 to 80.3 ng/g wet wt in fish tissues. Disulfoton was found in relatively high concentrations (up to 80.3 ng/g) in all organs from Tilapia and Corvina. These results demonstrate continued contamination of specific organochlorine compounds in sediments and resident fish species of the Salton Sea.Chemosphere 06/2004; 55(6):797-809. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 13 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. Four composite samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) or black bass (Micropterus spp.) of the same sex, were collected from each site and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. At the NCBP stations, which are located on relatively large rivers, concentrations of organochlorine chemical residues were generally lower than when last sampled in the mid-1980s. Residues derived from DDT (primarily p,p'-DDE) were detected at all sites (including the reference site); however, only traces (<or= 0.02 microg/g) of the parent insecticide (p,p'-DDT) were present, which indicates continued weathering of residual DDT from past use. Nevertheless, concentrations of DDT (as p,p'-DDE) in fish from the cotton-farming regions of the lower MRB were great enough to constitute a hazard to fish-eating wildlife and were especially high at the NAWQA sites on the lower-order rivers and streams of the Mississippi embayment. Mirex was detected at only two sites, both in Louisiana, and toxaphene was found exclusively in the lower MRB. Most cyclodiene pesticides (dieldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were more widespread in their distributions, but concentrations were lower than in the 1980s except at a site on the Mississippi River near Memphis, TN. Concentrations were also somewhat elevated at sites in the Corn Belt. Endrin was detected exclusively at the Memphis site. PCB concentrations generally declined, and residues were detected (>or= 0.05 microg/g) at only 35% of the stations, mostly in the more industrialized parts of the MRB.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2002; 43(1):81-97. · 2.01 Impact Factor