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From Here to Maternity: A Review of the Research on Lesbian and Gay Families

02/2005;

ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the international psychological and social science research on lesbian and gay parenting and family forms. It asks how this research should be used to inform social and legal policy on same-sex partnership and family recognition, with particular reference to Australian law.

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    ABSTRACT: The author reviewed the research on gay and lesbian parents and their children. The current body of research has been clear and consistent in establishing that children of gay and lesbian parents are as psychologically healthy as their peers from heterosexual homes. However, this comparison approach to research design appears to have limited the scope of research on gay and lesbian families, leaving much of the experience of these families yet to be investigated.
    The Family Journal 01/2005; 13(1):43-51. DOI:10.1177/1066480704270150
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    ABSTRACT: Peer violence has been increasing among children and has become a significant problem in many societies. Numerous studies of peer violence and bullying seek the explanations of this phenomenon in classical theories of aggression treating bullying as a form of aggressive behaviour. However, recent research frequently finds their theoretical starting point in a newer and more comprehensive integrative model of peer violence. Those models rely on classical theories but, combining them and taking into account a number of different factors contribute significantly to the explanation of the emergence of children’s violent behaviour towards their peers. One of the commonly-used integrative theories is Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model that has induced a number of studies of behavioural, psychological and biological characteristics of individuals but also, the interactions between the individual and environment and the interactions between the different levels of context. In this paper, based on an extensive literature review, and in light of the ecological model, we are trying to systematise insofar established facts about factors that are associated with the appearance of peer violence and, to provide a critical review of the research, with special emphasis on those that were guided by an ecological approach. A significant shift in the application of the theoretical framework and the use of improved methodology and advanced statistical analysis has been observed, very few studies take into account all of these aspects. Most researchers focus on one or two levels of ecological models and simple methodology neglecting complexity of the peer violence problems. Future studies should take into account advances in theoretical and methodological knowledge in research of peer violence. SAŽETAK Vršnjačko nasilničko ponašanje je sve učestalija pojava među djecom i predstavlja značajan društveni problem.Mnogobrojna istraživanja ove pojave objašnjenja su potražila u klasičnim teorijama agresivnosti koje vršnjačko nasilje tumače kao jedan od oblika agresivnog ponašanja. Ipak, novija istraživanja sve više teoretsko polazište pronalaze u novijim i sveobuhvatnijim integrativnim modelima nasilnog ponašanja ujedinjujući i kombinirajući veći broj čimbenika iz klasičnih teorija i bolje doprinose objašnjenju pojave nasilničkog ponašanja prema vršnjacima. Jedna od najčešće primjenjivanih integrativnih teorija je Bronfenbrennerov ekološki model koji je potaknuo niz istraživanja bihevioralnih, psiholoških i bioloških karakteristika pojedinaca, ali i interakcija između pojedinca i njegove okoline te interakcije između konteksta na različitim razinama. U ovom se radu na temelju opsežnog pregleda literature, a pod vidom ekološkog modela, pokušavaju usustaviti do sada utvrđene spoznaje o čimbenicima koji su povezani s pojavom nasilničkog ponašanja među vršnjacima te dati kritički osvrt na ta istraživanja s posebnim naglaskom na ona koja su bila rukovođena ekološkim pristupom. Premda se primjećuje značajan pomak u primjeni teorijskih okvira i unapređenju metodologije i složenijih postupaka analize podataka, vrlo mali broj studija pri provođenju istraživanja vršnjačkog nasilja uzima u obzir veći broj činitelja i aspekata okoline. Većina istraživača usmjerava se na jednu ili dvije razine ekološkog modela i jednostavniju metodologiju, zanemarujući pritom složenost ove problematike. Buduća istraživanja trebala bi pri planiranju i provedbi uzeti u obzir nove teorijske, ali i metodološke spoznaje na ovom propulzivnom području.
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