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HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND ACCUMULATION IN SOIL AND WILD PLANT SPECIES FROM INDUSTRIAL AREA OF ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN

Pakistan Journal of Botany 01/2010; 42:291-301.

ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cr in the soil and plant samples of 16 plant species collected from industrial zone of Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentration, transfer and accumulation of metals from soil to roots and shoots was evaluated in terms of Biological Concentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF) and Bioaccumulation Coefficient (BAC). Total metal concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Cr in soils varied between 2.0-29.0, 61.9-172.6, 8.9 to 357.4, 7.3-24.7, 41.4-59.3, and 40.2-927.2 mg/kg. Total metal concentrations pattern in roots were: Cu>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Co. Grasses showed relatively higher total Zn concentration. Accumulation of Cu was highest in shoots followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Co and Ni. None of plant species were identified as hyperaccumulator; however, based on BCFs, TFs, and BACs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Parthenium hysterophoirus L., and Amaranthus viridis L., is suggested for phytoextraction of Pb and Ni, whereas, Partulaca oleracea L., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & Hubb., Solanum nigrum L., and Xanthium stromarium L., for phytostabilization of soils contaminated with Pb and Cu.

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    ABSTRACT: Metal rich soils derived mainlyfrom ultramafic (i.e. serpentinitic soils) are wide spread over Penjwin (Mlakawa) area. Three serpentinitic (S1, S2, S3) with one non-serpentinitic soils (S4) were used and these soils contain high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ni, Cr, Co and Mn. Results showed that total metal concentration ranged between 192.0 -1714.8 mg kg -1 , 289.0 -1264.2 mg kg -1 , 128.8-177.6 mg kg -1 and 4125-4795 mg kg -1 respectively, while after harvesting plants (wheat and grass) in the biological pots (CRD) experiment. The concentration of the total and potentially available metals Ni, Cr, Co and Mn decreased in the grass and wheat soil pots. But The CaCl 2 -extractable and water –soluble metals increased in soils after harvesting the wheat and grass except for Co which decreased. In wheat and grass plants (wheat Triticum aestivum and canarygrass Phalaris canariensis), the uptake of Ni and Cr metals for soil S1 were above the normal range and the values were 14.47 mg Ni pot -1 and 6.6 mg Cr pot -1 . The concentrations of both Ni and Cr metals were found to be at the toxic level. While Ni in other soil samples was observed within the normal range and tolerance limits, but Cr, in the other soil samples, was above the tolerance level and was slightly less than toxic level. Wheat could take up highest amounts of toxic metals when grown in serpentine soils. The study showed that none of plants (wheat and grass) were identified as hyperaccumulator.
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