Article

The Anti-Tumor Effect of A3 Adenosine Receptors Is Potentiated by Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in Cultured Neural Cancer Cells

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pharmacology Unit, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 06/2012; 7(6):e39317. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039317
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the development of cancer and their activation is involved in the inhibition of tumor growth. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cancer have been controversially discussed and the detailed mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In the past we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A(2A) and A(3)AR density and functionality in human neutrophils, human and bovine synoviocytes, and bovine chondrocytes. In the same cells, PEMF exposure increased the anti-inflammatory effect mediated by A(2A) and/or A(3)ARs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-tumor effect of A(3)ARs in PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines in comparison with rat cortical neurons. Saturation binding assays and mRNA analysis revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A(2A) and A(3)ARs that are well coupled to adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production. The activation of A(2A) and A(3)ARs resulted in the decrease of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) levels in tumor cells, whilst only A(3)ARs are involved in the increase of p53 expression. A(3)AR stimulation mediated an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation evaluated by thymidine incorporation. An increase of cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and apoptosis by caspase-3 activation in PC12 and U87MG cells, but not in cortical neurons, was observed following A(3)AR activation. The effect of the A(3)AR agonist in tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and blocked by using a well-known selective antagonist. Together these results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increases the anti-tumor effect modulated by A(3)ARs.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Stefania Setti, Jul 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
175 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study shows that a non-thermal pulse-modulated RF signal (PRF), configured to modulate calmodulin (CaM) activation via acceleration of Ca(2+) binding kinetics, produced an immediate nearly 3-fold increase in nitric oxide (NO) from dopaminergic MN9D cultures (P<0.001). NO was measured electrochemically in real-time using a NO selective membrane electrode, which showed the PRF effect occurred within the first seconds after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Further support that the site of action of PRF involves CaM is provided in human fibroblast cultures challenged with low serum and exposed for 15min to the identical PRF signal. In this case a CaM antagonist W-7 could be added to the culture 3h prior to PRF exposure. Those results showed the PRF signal produced nearly a two-fold increase in NO, which could be blocked by W-7 (P<0.001). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a real-time effect of non-thermal electromagnetic fields (EMF) on NO release from challenged cells. The results provide mechanistic support for the many reported bioeffects of EMF in which NO plays a role. Thus, in a typical clinical application for acute post operative pain, or chronic pain from, e.g., osteoarthritis, EMF therapy could be employed to modulate the dynamics of NO via Ca/CaM-dependent constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) in the target tissue. This, in turn, would modulate the dynamics of the signaling pathways the body uses in response to the various phases of healing after physical or chemical insult or injury.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2012; 426(3):330-3. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.078 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A(2A) adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the inhibition of the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation of A(2A)ARs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after different pharmacological treatments and to investigate the effect of A(2A)AR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis. We investigated A(2A)AR density and functionality in RA progression by using a longitudinal study in RA patients before and after methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFα agents or rituximab treatments. A(2A)ARs were analyzed by saturation binding assays in lymphocytes from RA patients throughout the 24-month study timeframe. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats we showed the efficacy of the A(2A)AR agonist, CGS 21680 in comparison with standard therapies by means of paw volume assessment, radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging. Arthritic-associated pain was investigated in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests. IL-10 release following A(2A)AR stimulation in lymphocytes from RA patients and in serum from arthritic rats was measured. In lymphocytes obtained from RA patients, the A(2A)AR up-regulation was gradually reduced in function of the treatment time and the stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant increase of IL-10 production. In the same cells, CGS 21680 did not affected cell viability and did not produced cytotoxic effects. The A(2A)AR agonist CGS 21680 was highly effective, as suggested by the marked reduction of clinical signs, in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis and associated pain. This study highlighted that A(2A)AR agonists represent a physiological-like therapeutic alternative for RA treatment as suggested by the anti-inflammatory role of A(2A)ARs in lymphocytes from RA patients. The effectiveness of A(2A)AR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis supported the role of A(2A)AR agonists as potential pharmacological treatment for RA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54195. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054195 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adenosine receptors (ARs) have an important role in the regulation of inflammation and their activation is involved in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on inflammation have been reported and we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A2A and A3AR density and functionality in different cell lines. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are two key cell types in the skeletal system that play important role in cartilage and bone metabolism representing an interesting target to study the effect of PEMFs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A and/or A3ARs in T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence, mRNA analysis and saturation binding assays revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A2A and A3AR expression. A2A and A3ARs were able to modulate cAMP production and cell proliferation. The activation of A2A and A3ARs resulted in the decrease of some of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokine release such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, following the treatment with IL-1β as an inflammatory stimuli. In human chondrocyte and osteoblast cell lines, the inhibitory effect of A2A and A3AR stimulation on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important lipid inflammatory mediator, was observed. In addition, in T/C-28a2 cells, the activation of A2A or A3ARs elicited an inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. In hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts, PEMF exposure determined an increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG) production. The effect of the A2A or A3AR agonists in the examined cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and completely blocked by using well-known selective antagonists. These results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increase the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A or A3ARs suggesting their potential therapeutic use in the therapy of inflammatory bone and joint disorders.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e65561. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065561 · 3.53 Impact Factor