Long-Term Cognitive Impairments and Attentional Deficits in Patients with Cushing's Disease and Cortisol-Producing Adrenal Adenoma in Remission
ABSTRACT Context: Cognitive function is impaired in patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS). Objective: The aim was to study cognitive function in patients with CS in long-term remission. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled, single center study. Patients: Fifty-five patients previously treated for Cushing's disease (n = 43) and cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma (n = 12) and 55 controls matched for age, gender, and educational level participated in the study. Methods: Working memory, attention, information-processing speed, verbal fluency, and reading speed were studied using standardized neuropsychological testing and alerting, orienting, and executive control using the Attentional Network Test. Fatigue impact scale and the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale were used to evaluate fatigue and affective disorder. Results: Median (interquartile range) duration of remission was 13 (5-19) yr and the mean ± sd age at follow-up was 54 ± 14 yr. Compared to controls, patients had a higher score on the fatigue impact scale, indicating greater burdens of fatigue, and a higher score on the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale subscales for depression and anxiety. In a multivariate analysis, attention, spatial orienting, alerting, working memory, verbal fluency, and reading speed were all diminished in comparison to controls, independent of scores for affective disorder and fatigue. No overall difference in outcome was seen between patients in long-term remission for Cushing's disease and cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Conclusion: Patients with CS in remission have impaired cognitive function that cannot be explained by the coexistence of affective disorder or chronic fatigue. The pattern of cognitive and attentional deficits suggests a more global involvement of the brain function than has previously been suggested.
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ABSTRACT: Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS), a rare endocrine disorder characterized by cortisol hypersecretion, is associated with psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders. Major depression, mania, anxiety, and neurocognitive impairment are the most important clinical abnormalities. Moreover, patients most often complain of impairment in quality of life, interference with family life, social, and work performance. Surprisingly, after hypercortisolism resolution, despite the improvement of the overall prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, the brain volume loss at least partially persists and it should be noted that some patients may still display depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and neurocognitive impairment. This brief review aimed at describing the prevalence of psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders and their characterization both during the active and remission phases of CS. The last section of this review is dedicated to quality of life, impaired during active CS and only partially resolved after resolution of hypercortisolism.Frontiers in Neuroscience 04/2015; 9:129. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00129
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ABSTRACT: Adverse body compositional features and low bone mineral density (BMD) are the characteristic of patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS). The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition and BMD in women with CS in long-term remission and the influence of polymorphisms in genes affecting glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity on these end-points. This was a cross-sectional, case-controlled study, including 50 women previously treated for CS and 50 age and gender-matched controls. Median (interquartile range) remission time was 13 (5-19) years. Body composition and BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Five polymorphisms in four genes associated with GC sensitivity were analysed using TaqMan or Sequenom single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Patients with CS in remission had increased abdominal fat mass (P<0.01), whereas BMD was not significantly different at any site between patients and controls. In patients, the NR3C1 Bcl1 polymorphism was associated with reduced total (P<0.05) and femur neck BMD (P<0.05). The polymorphism rs1045642 in the ABCB1 gene was associated with increased abdominal fat mass (P<0.05) and decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass (P<0.05). GC replacement was associated with reduced total BMD (P<0.01), BMD at lumbar spine (P<0.05) and increased abdominal fat (P<0.01). Ongoing GC replacement therapy together with polymorphisms in two genes related with GC sensitivity is associated with abdominal obesity and adverse skeletal health in patients with CS in long-term remission. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.European Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 172(1):1-10. DOI:10.1530/EJE-14-0747 · 3.69 Impact Factor
Article: Comorbidities in Cushing’s disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cushing's disease is a rare disorder characterized by overproduction of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma leading to hypercortisolemia that in turn leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Here we review the comorbidities associated with Cushing's disease and their impact on quality of life and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that correction of hypercortisolemia may not lead to complete resolution of comorbidities associated with this condition. In particular, increased cardiovascular risk may persist despite long-term remission of hypercortisolemia. This may be related to persistence of visceral adiposity, adverse adipokine profile, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and a procoagulant phenotype. Prior prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids also may have irreversible effects on the central nervous system, leading to persistent cognitive and mood alterations. Osteoporosis and fractures, especially vertebral fractures, can further add to morbidity and a poor quality of life. Normalization of cortisol levels leads to significant improvement in comorbidities but long-term data regarding complete resolution are lacking and need further study. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypercortisolemia, aggressive management of comorbidities along with long-term follow-up is crucial for the optimal recovery of these patients.Pituitary 02/2015; 18(2). DOI:10.1007/s11102-015-0645-6 · 2.22 Impact Factor