Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) reactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and pDC number do not correlate with the clinical or virologic severity of recurrent genital herpes.
ABSTRACT Leukocytes participate in the immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Data from HIV coinfections, germ line mutations, and case reports suggest involvement of CD4 T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We investigated the relationships between these cells and recurrent genital herpes disease severity in the general population. Circulating CD4 T-cell responses to HSV-2 were measured in specimens from 67 immunocompetent individuals with measured genital lesion and HSV shedding rates. Similarly, pDC number and functional responses to HSV-2 were analyzed in 40 persons. CD4 responses and pDC concentrations and responses ranged as much as 100-fold between persons while displaying moderate within-person consistency over time. No correlations were observed between these immune response parameters and genital HSV-2 severity. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection was not correlated with differences in HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cell responses. The CD4 T-cell response to HSV-2 was much more polyfunctional than was the response to CMV. These data suggest that other immune cell subsets with alternate phenotypes or anatomical locations may be responsible for genital herpes control in chronically infected individuals.
Article: Comparison of interlaboratory variation in absolute T-cell counts by single-platform and optimized dual-platform methods.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the adoption of a single-platform flow cytometry cell counting method resulted in lower interlaboratory variation in absolute T cell counts as compared to predicate dual-platform flow cytometry methods which incorporate independent automated lymphocyte counts (Schnizlein-Bick et al., Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000;7:336-343; Reimann et al., Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000;7:344-351). In the present study, we asked whether use of a single-platform method could reduce variation in absolute cell counts across the laboratories in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) (n = 4), as suggested by the studies cited. Identical study samples were shipped overnight to the MACS laboratories either by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS Immunology Quality Assessment (NIAID- IQA) proficiency-testing program (n = 14), or by the Los Angeles site of the MACS (n = 10). For each sample, two tubes of blood were received; one was used for an automated complete blood count and differential, and the other for flow cytometry. The latter was performed using both our current dual-platform method (three-color CD45 gating and automated hematology) and the single-platform method (with TruCOUNT beads to generate the absolute counts). The median percent coefficients of variation (%CVs) for the dual-platform and single-platform methods were 6.6 and 9.9, respectively, for CD4 T cell counts, and 5.9 and 8.5, respectively, for CD8 T cell counts (n = 24). These differences were not statistically significant. The differences in absolute T-cell counts between the MACS sites and the median of all laboratories participating in the NIAID-IQA were smaller for the dual-platform than for single-platform absolute count method. In contrast to previous reports, we did not observe lower interlaboratory variation across the MACS sites for single-platform absolute lymphocyte subset counting relative to dual-platform methods. This result may be at least partly explained by the lower interlaboratory variation with the optimized dual-platform method in this study relative to the previous reports.Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 10/2009; 78(3):194-200. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the epidemiology of type specific recurrent genital herpes, and to compare the duration of recurrent genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Participants were enrolled at clinics across the United States. Adults suspected of having active genital herpes were eligible. Lesions were cultured for HSV and typed. Data from 940 participants with recurrent culture positive HSV lesions were analysed. Pearson's chi(2) and Fisher's exact tests, multivariate logistic regression models, and a stratified Cox proportional hazards model were used to compare epidemiological characteristics and lesion duration of HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 was present in 4.2% of the recurrent HSV culture positive lesions. HSV-1 was most prevalent among whites (6.5%) and individuals with 0-2 recurrences in the previous year (9.1%) and, among men, in those with rectal/perirectal lesions (13.2%). Longer lesion duration was not significantly associated with virus type (hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.38, p = 0.79), but was associated with male sex (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99, p = 0.04), and HIV seropositivity (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.81, p<0.01). The authors found that, in the United States, recurrent genital HSV-1 is relatively rare in the STD and HIV clinic setting, especially among black people. Among men, rectal/perirectal recurrent lesions are more likely to be caused by HSV-1 than are penile lesions. In addition, lesion duration depends on sex and HIV status but not virus type. These findings shed new light on the type specific epidemiology of recurrent genital HSV, and suggest that type specific testing can inform the prognosis and management of genital herpes.Sexually Transmitted Infections 01/2004; 79(6):456-9. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-associated failing systemic immunity, loosely termed 'immunosenescence', is thought to contribute to the increased incidence and severity of infectious disease in old people. It would therefore be of great practical as well as academic interest to accurately identify which of the multitude of alterations to immune parameters thus far reported are causally related to a person's clinically unfavourable health status, in order to identify the mechanisms of immune ageing and intervene to restore appropriate immunity. This is an enormous current challenge, as it requires longitudinal studies in a very long-lived species. Circumstantial evidence and longitudinal studies limited to the very elderly have begun to reveal 'immune signatures' or biomarkers of immune ageing consisting not of a single parameter, but clusters of parameters increasingly recognized as an 'immune risk profile', or IRP. Although hinted at many years ago, a marked impact of usually asymptomatic infection with the persistent beta-herpesvirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) on markers of immunosenescence is now becoming incontrovertible. The fascinating cohabitation of CMV with the human immune system, which commits a very significant fraction of its entire resources to CMV-immunosurveillance, may suggest an early-life benefit from infection, which becomes deleterious for the majority of the population only in later life or under pathological conditions.Current opinion in immunology 07/2009; 21(4):440-5. · 10.88 Impact Factor