Binding of cellular export factor REF/Aly by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is not required for efficient KSHV lytic replication.
ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein is expressed early during lytic KSHV replication, enhances expression of many KSHV genes, and is essential for virus production. ORF57 is a member of a family of proteins conserved among all human and many animal herpesviruses that are multifunctional regulators of gene expression and act posttranscriptionally to increase accumulation of their target mRNAs. The mechanism of ORF57 action is complex and may involve effects on mRNA transcription, stability, and export. ORF57 directly binds to REF/Aly, a cellular RNA-binding protein component of the TREX complex that mediates RNA transcription and export. We analyzed the effects of an ORF57 mutation known to abrogate REF/Aly binding and demonstrate that the REF-binding mutant is impaired in activation of viral mRNAs and noncoding RNAs confined to the nucleus. Although the inability to bind REF leads to decreased ORF57 activity in enhancing gene expression, there is no demonstrable effect on nuclear export of viral mRNA or the ability of ORF57 to support KSHV replication and virus production. These data indicate that REF/Aly-ORF57 interaction is not essential for KSHV lytic replication but may contribute to target RNA stability independent of effects on RNA export, suggesting a novel role for REF/Aly in viral RNA metabolism.
Article: The human herpesvirus 8 homolog of Epstein-Barr virus SM protein (KS-SM) is a posttranscriptional activator of gene expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homologs of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) SM protein exist in several human and nonhuman herpesviruses. Structure and function differ significantly among these proteins. We have cloned and characterized the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) gene, KS-SM, which is homologous to the EBV SM and herpes simplex virus ICP27 genes, from an HHV8-infected primary effusion lymphoma. KS-SM is shown to be a posttranscriptional activator of gene expression in cotransfection studies. KS-SM activated gene expression in a gene-specific, promoter-independent manner. In particular, KS-SM enhanced the expression of KDR/flk-1, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in cotransfection studies. Since expression of KDR/flk-1 is increased in Kaposi's sarcoma and HHV8-infected cell cultures and VEGF enhances the proliferation of HHV8-infected cells, KS-SM may play a pathogenic role in Kaposi's sarcoma.Journal of Virology 02/2000; 74(2):1038-44. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: The evolutionarily conserved Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein interacts with REF protein and acts as an RNA export factor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ORF57 (MTA) one of the earliest Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulatory proteins to be expressed is essential for virus lytic replication. A counterpart is present in every herpesvirus sequenced, indicating the importance of this signature viral protein and those examined act post-transcriptionally, affecting RNA splicing and transport. In KSHV-infected cells, ORF57 protein was present in a complex with REF (Aly) and TAP (NXF1), factors involved in cellular mRNA export. The ORF57 N-terminal region interacts with REF, whereas both N- and C-terminal domains of REF interact with ORF57. The ORF57-REF interaction was direct, whereas TAP appeared to be recruited via REF. In somatic cells, ectopically expressed ORF57 protein was shown to function as a CRM1-independent nuclear mRNA export factor, promoting export of mRNAs that are poor substrates for splicing. The gamma-herpesvirus ORF57 protein, and its alpha-1 herpesvirus ICP27 counterpart both export RNA through pathways involving REF and TAP proteins, although divergence of these herpesvirus subfamilies occurred some 180-210 million years ago. The TAP-mediated cellular mRNA export pathway is CRM1-independent. However, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein-mediated RNA export, which is CRM1-dependent, was considerably inhibited by ORF57, suggesting that Rev and ORF57 compete for a common export component. These data strengthen arguments that TAP and CRM1 pathways converge in accessing similar components of the nuclear pore complex. We propose that ORF57-mediated RNA export may use different export factors to accommodate the KSHV-infected host cell environments, for example, in B-cells or endothelial cells and during the different phases of lytic virus replication.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2004; 279(31):33001-11. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In metazoans, most pre-messenger RNAs contain introns that are removed by splicing. The spliced mRNAs are then exported to the cytoplasm. Recent studies showed that splicing promotes efficient mRNA export, but the mechanism for coupling these two processes is not known. Here we show that Aly, the metazoan homologue of the yeast mRNA export factor Yralp (ref. 2), is recruited to messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes generated by splicing. In contrast, Aly does not associate with mRNPs assembled on identical mRNAs that already have no introns or with heterogenous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) complexes. Aly is recruited during spliceosome assembly, and then becomes tightly associated with the spliced mRNP. Aly shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, and excess recombinant Aly increases both the rate and efficiency of mRNA export in vivo. Consistent with its splicing-dependent recruitment, Aly co-localizes with splicing factors in the nucleus. We conclude that splicing is required for efficient mRNA export as a result of coupling between the splicing and the mRNA export machineries.Nature 10/2000; 407(6802):401-5. · 36.28 Impact Factor