Connective tissue growth factor-mediated upregulation of neuromedin U expression in trabecular meshwork cells and its role in homeostasis of aqueous humor outflow.
ABSTRACT Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein presumed to be involved in the pathobiology of various fibrotic diseases, including glaucoma. We investigated the effects of Rho GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeletal integrity on CTGF expression and CTGF-induced changes in gene expression profile in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells.
CTGF levels were quantified by immunoblotting and ELISA. CTGF-induced changes in gene expression, actin cytoskeleton, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were evaluated in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells by cDNA microarray, q-PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and immunoblot analyses. The effects of neuromedin U (NMU) on aqueous humor (AH) outflow were determined in enucleated porcine eyes.
Expression of a constitutively active form of RhoA (RhoAV14), activation of Rho GTPase by bacterial toxin, or inhibition of Rho kinase by Y-27632 in HTM cells led to significant but contrasting changes in CTGF protein levels that were detectable in cell lysates and cell culture medium. Stimulation of HTM cells with CTGF for 24 hours induced actin stress fiber formation, and increased MLC phosphorylation, fibronectin, and laminin levels, and NMU expression. NMU independently induced actin stress fibers and MLC phosphorylation in TM cells, and decreased AH outflow facility in perfused porcine eyes.
These data revealed that CTGF influences ECM synthesis, actin cytoskeletal dynamics, and contractile properties in TM cells, and that the expression of CTGF is regulated closely by Rho GTPase. Moreover, NMU, whose expression is induced in response to CTGF, partially mimics the effects of CTGF on actomyosin organization in TM cells, and decreases AH outflow facility, revealing a potentially important role for this neuropeptide in the homeostasis of AH drainage.
Article: Signaling and ligand binding by recombinant neuromedin U receptors: evidence for dual coupling to Galphaq/11 and Galphai and an irreversible ligand-receptor interaction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide neuromedin U (NmU) shows considerable structural conservation across species. Within the body, it is widely distributed and in mammals has been implicated in physiological roles, including the regulation of feeding, anxiety, pain, blood flow, and smooth muscle contraction. Human NmU-25 (hNmU-25) and other NmU analogs were recently identified as ligands for two human orphan G protein-coupled receptors, subsequently named hNmU-R1 and hNmU-R2. These receptors have approximately 50% amino acid homology, and, at least in mammalian species, NmU-R1 and NmU-R2 are expressed predominantly in the periphery and central nervous system, respectively. Here, we have characterized signaling mediated by hNmU-R1 and hNmU-R2 expressed as recombinant proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, particularly to define their G protein coupling and the activation and regulation of signal transduction pathways. We show that these receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i). Activation of either receptor type causes a pertussis toxin-insensitive activation of both phospholipase C and mitogen activated-protein kinase and a pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with subnanomolar potency for each. Activation of phospholipase C is sustained, but despite this capacity for prolonged receptor activation, repetitive application of hNmU-25 does not cause repetitive intracellular Ca2+ signaling by either recombinant receptors or those expressed endogenously in isolated smooth muscle cells from rat fundus. Using several strategies, we show this to be a consequence of essentially irreversible binding of hNmU-25 to its receptors and that this is followed by ligand internalization. Despite structural differences between receptors, there were no apparent differences in their activation, coupling, or regulation.Molecular Pharmacology 01/2005; 66(6):1544-56. · 4.88 Impact Factor
Article: Dennis Chapman.Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 02/2001; 47:55-66.