Acaricide resistance status in Indian isolates of Hyalomma anatolicum.

Entomology Laboratory, Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243122, UP, India.
Experimental and Applied Acarology (Impact Factor: 1.82). 07/2012; 58(4). DOI: 10.1007/s10493-012-9592-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The multi host tick, Hyalomma anatolicum, is the commonest Hyalomma species in India and cattle serves as the main host of this species. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance of H. anatolicum to deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon was conducted in 20 areas located in three agro climatic regions known to have abundance of the species. Results obtained by the "larval packet test" (LPT) showed a low grade resistance (level-I, RF <5) in the tick species to both deltamethrin and cypermethrin in 10 areas and higher grade resistance (level-II, RF <25) to deltamethrin in one area, where intensive use of synthetic pyrethroids are practiced for tick control. Low grade resistance to diazinon (level I) was recorded in six areas where organophosphates compounds are extensively used for agricultural practices allowing increased exposure of the moulting instars of the ticks to these chemicals. Biochemical analysis of the samples suggested involvement of esterase and alterations of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanisms.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.
    Journal of vector borne diseases 12/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 %) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10 % were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20 %, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7 % was recorded at 20 %. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43 %, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1 % at concentrations of 10 and 20 %, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20 %) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100 % mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum.
    Experimental and Applied Acarology 07/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tick infection is considered a cause of major concern as it is a vector for some disease transmission. The use of chemicals to control tick infection is increasing in farm systems. The efficacy of three chemicals was studied on the tick Boophilus annulatus. In vitro and in vivo studies were done. The active ticks were collected from naturally infected cattle for in vitro study. They were incubated with the three chemicals which are commercially used. An in vitro study recorded that the highest effect of the three chemicals was 100 % at 3 h postexposure (p.e.) time for deltamethrin and 6 h for diazinon and ivermectin on the adult ticks. Egg batches were less affected. In vivo results showed more plain efficacy. The efficacy of deltamethrin was increased gradually until complete cessation of ticks showed within 3rd day posttreatment (d.p.t.), 100 % efficacy. But the tick population begins to reappear gradually within 7 d.p.t., while diazinon showed 100 % efficacy at 7 d.p.t. and the ticks reappear again within 14 d.p.t. The most preferred results were obtained with ivermectin which showed 100 % efficacy at 7 d.p.t., and the cattle was still free from infection until 21 d.p.t. only. Ticks begin to reappear within 28 d.p.t. in slight few numbers. This concluded that the powerful and safe chemical which is commercially used was ivermectin. Even so, it is used also as an anthelmintic drug.
    Parasitology Research 11/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 10, 2014