Effect of exogenous abscisic acid on the level of antioxidants in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz under lead stress.
ABSTRACT This study hypothesized that the positive or negative effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on oxidative stress caused by lead were dose dependent. The effects of different levels of ABA (2.5, 5, and 10 mg L(-1)) on lead toxicity in the leaves of Atractylodes macrocephala were studied by investigating plant growth, soluble sugars, proteins, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidative enzymes. Excess Pb inhibited root dry weight, root length, and the number of lateral roots, but increased shoot growth. In addition, lead stress significantly decreased the levels of chlorophyll pigments, protein, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD). Different levels of ABA significantly increased SOD, CAT, POD, and APX activities, but decreased the level of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in nonstressed plants. Exogenous application of 2.5 mg L(-1) ABA detoxified the stress-generated damages caused by Pb and also enhanced plant growth, soluble sugars, proteins, and all four antioxidant enzyme activities but reduced Pb uptake of lead-stressed plant compared to lead treatment alone. However, the toxic effects of Pb were further increased by the applications of 5 and 10 mg L(-1) ABA. The levels of antioxidants caused by a low concentration of exogenous ABA might be responsible for minimizing the Pb-induced toxicity in A. macrocephala.
SourceAvailable from: Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.Molecules 07/2013; 18(7):7957-76. DOI:10.3390/molecules18077957 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and Cd on antioxidative defense systems and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase during adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. The exogenous ABA significantly enhanced the number and fresh weight of the adventitious roots. CdCl2 strongly inhibited adventitious rooting. Pretreatment with 10 μM ABA clearly alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on rooting. ABA significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) during adventitious rooting. ABA strongly increased IAA-oxidase activity during the induction (0-12 h) and expression (after 48 h) phases and increased the phenols levels. Cd treatment significantly reduced the activities of SOD, APX, POD, and IAA oxidase, as well as GSH level. Cd strongly increased ASA levels. ABA pretreatment counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, e.g., remarkably rescued APX and POD activities, reduced the elevated SOD and CAT activities and ASA levels, and recovered the reduced GSH levels, caused by Cd stress. Thus, the physiological effects of the combination of ABA and Cd treatments were opposite of those obtained with Cd treatment alone, suggesting that ABA involved in the regulation of antioxidative defense systems and the alleviation of wounding- and Cd-induced oxidative stress.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2013; 21(1). DOI:10.1007/s11356-013-1942-0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Atractylodes macrocephala, a famous herbal medicine, is used extensively in the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Processing procedure is a common approach that usually occurs before A. macrocephala is prescribed. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of principal volatile compounds in crude and processed A. macrocephala. Materials and Methods: The present study concentrated on the development of a static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC/MS) for separating and identifying of volatile compounds from crude and processed A. macrocephala samples. Results: The results showed that the volatile oil in crude and processed A. macrocephala was markedly quantitatively and qualitatively different. Processing resulted in the reduction of volatile oil contents and variation of chemical compositions in A. macrocephala. Conclusion: The proposed method proved that SHS-GC/MS is rapid and specific, and should also be useful for evaluating the quality of crude and processed medicinal herbs.Pharmacognosy Magazine 07/2014; 10(39):249-53. DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.137364 · 1.11 Impact Factor